Bettering Transport Goods While Reducing their Environmental Impact Organize the capstone, correction on the texts I have already, complete the capstone, c

Bettering Transport Goods While Reducing their Environmental Impact Organize the capstone, correction on the texts I have already, complete the capstone, conclusion, references CAPSTONE
General Introduction
With the increased growth of cities, air pollution, climate change; the protection of the
environment has become a very preoccupying subject. To have a healthy environment and to
meet the multiple needs of man is one of the goals pursued by all the wise countries of the world,
whether North or South. The well-being of men is subordinated to the development of urban
logistics, of which the transport sector is a key element.
Transport plays a vital role in the economic and commercial development of countries and,
consequently, in the well-being of their people. To produce goods and services, companies
depend on transport, which enables them to obtain raw materials, spare parts for labor and
energy, and to send manufactured goods, agricultural products and services. to local consumers
and international markets.
Beyond and through its main task of ensuring the movement of people and the movement of
goods, transport has a considerable impact on the lives of all by contributing to the creation of
jobs and making more accessible infrastructure and services. social services.
Urban logistics is defined by L. Dablanc (2010) as “any service contributing to optimized
management of urban goods flows. It concerns the routing of goods in the heart of the
agglomeration, their treatment on this territory, their delivery to the final recipient as well as the
management of flows “.
It is important to understand the evolution of urban space, its issues, its constraints but also the
policies that govern it. Since the Second World War, the growth of global trade has been
increased especially during this last decade with the internet trade exchanges will increase
exponentially to the point of never before. This contributes to the massive degradation of the
Following the Second World War, what worried most of the countries ruined by the so-called
war was to put in place mechanisms that govern economic relations, with the primary objective
of developing international trade. The issue of the environment was of no importance in the main
Fortunately, over the last few decades, there has been an awareness of the effects of economic
growth on the environment. The regret remains to note that this awareness is not widespread, the
cities are polluted, the environment in general submits consequences more and more harmful.
This work aims to show beyond the indispensability of transport, the negative impacts and
propose solutions to reduce them for better urban logistics.
Propose of Study
One of the most worrying issues today is the protection of the environment. Having a healthy
environment and meeting the many needs of man is one of the goals pursued by all the wise
countries of the world. The well-being of men is subordinated to the development of economic
activities, one of the main drivers of which is the transport sector.
Transport is an essential means that allows both the mobility of men and the trade between them.
They have the distinction of being composed of two elements, namely the mobile which
constitutes the visible part and the infrastructures which represent the hidden part. However,
these two aspects are not without effects (impacts) on the environment. The environment is
understood as the whole of air, water, soil and all the tangible and intangible assets that interact
and condition human life. The problem of developing economic activity by posing, requires the
de facto protection of the environment.
Urban space has evolved enormously in recent years, becoming overcrowded. It is therefore
essential to consider the evolution of urban space and its logistical adaptation. Indeed, the
logistics must be optimized in terms of cost, delay and consequences for the environment and the
The environment is threatened by the modernization and growth of human needs. The transport
sector, despite its economic and social utility, has a negative impact on environmental resources
and this is perceptible both locally and globally. In the context of urban logistics, how to improve
the transport of goods while reducing their impact on the environment?
Statement of Problem
The world is urbanizing. It becomes urban. The “urban logistics issue” is becoming central in all
societies, from north to south, and the relationship between population, urbanization,
transportation and the environment is becoming increasingly important.
All developments push today to increase mobility, so pollution. There is an increase in daily
distances traveled, especially by car. Transport has already replaced industry as the main source
of air pollution. In general, transport policies determine the geopolitics of oil and the evolution of
air pollution.
However, the growth of transport is often seen as a factor of development whatever the
consequences, in the context of integration, of the globalization of the economy and the
desertification of rural areas. It is necessary to resort to the control of the mobility especially
when this one is constrained and not chosen.
Therefore, environmental problems related to transport (especially in urban areas), such as
pollution, nuisance, deterioration, climate deregulation are a problem that must be taken into
account. Indeed, changes in cities, consumption patterns and technological progress encourage us
to carry out new studies on the subject.
This study aims to provide solutions to the problem “In the context of urban logistics, how to
improve the transport of goods while reducing their impact on the environment?”.
Research Question
1- How to improve the use of means of transport related to the transport of goods in the urban
2- What are the levers for moving towards sustainable freight transport?
Although cities have existed for millennia, today’s urbanization process differs from the
urban transformations of the past. Indeed, the degree of urbanization, in terms of the size of the
urban population, the physical extent of urban areas and the number of large urban centers, is
unprecedented (Seto et al., 2010). The urban population has grown phenomenally since 1950,
from 751 to 4.2 million (UN, 2018). There are now 28 megacities around the world hosting more
than 10 million people (UN, 2018). Tokyo is the largest of these megacities with a population of
about 37 million people. This city is huge and covers 13,500 km2, an area larger than Jamaica
(Seto et al., 2010). The following mega cities are New Delhi with 29 million, Shanghai with 26
million, Mexico City and São Paulo, each with about 22 million inhabitants.
According to the UN (2018), by 2030 the world is expected to have 43 megacities with more
than 10 million inhabitants, most of them in developing regions. In fact, the continents that are
urbanizing are no longer the same as before. Some parts of Asia and Africa are currently
experiencing the strongest urban growth in the world (SCBD 2012, UN 2018).
This chapter is intended to provide a more detailed portrait of major urbanization trends. To do
this, it describes trends in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and North
America, as well as Oceania.
It also reviews the benefits and challenges of urbanization for humans. It then describes the
contribution of urbanization to the loss of biodiversity on a global scale. Finally, it puts forward
international initiatives for the conservation of biodiversity in urban areas. This contextualization
aims to provide an overview of urban development on the planet. A better understanding of the
urbanization process and its impact on biodiversity will better guide the recommendations of the
last chapter of the trial.
1.1 Urbanization trends in the world
1.2 In 2007, the urban population surpassed the rural population and, for the first time in history,
man became an urban species (UN, 2014). This is the result of the urbanization phenomenon that
has taken place over the past six decades. Today, nearly 4.2 billion people live in urban areas, or
55% of the human population. If trends continue, this figure will add 2.5 billion in 2050 and
represent 68% of the world’s population. This urban growth will occur in small and mediumsized cities, not in megacities (UN, 2018)
It goes without saying that this increase in the urban population will be accompanied by
an expansion of urban areas. Current trends show that artificial surfaces, such as infrastructure,
buildings, lawns or parks, are growing faster than urban populations. Indeed, the total of these
surfaces increases on average twice as fast as the urban populations. This suggests more urban
development than before (Angel et al., 2011, Seto et al., 2010, Seto et al., 2011). As a result,
urbanization is increasingly taking place beyond the suburbs or outlying areas of a city (Brown et
al., 2005, EEA, 2006, Simon et al., 2004). This process is called peri-urbanization. The physical
results of this peri urbanization is a mosaic of traditional and agricultural landscapes juxtaposed
with modern and industrial landscapes (Seto et al., 2010).
These forms of urban growth cause a rapid transformation of several areas rich in biodiversity.
This is the case for biodiversity hotspots designated by Conservation International on a global
scale (Cincotta et al., 2000, SCBD 2012, Seto et al., 2012). These areas are important because
they contain a high number of endemic species that are threatened by human activities (CI 2014,
Myers et al.).
In addition, urban development is occurring rapidly in low-lying coastal areas (SCBD 2012;
Seto et al. 2011); areas that are also very rich in biodiversity (McDonald et al., 2013). In the past,
these areas have naturally been colonized and urbanized because of their net primary
productivity and access to shipping routes (Luck 2007, McDonald et al. This, of course, poses a
threat to coastal biodiversity, but also poses a risk to the human population because of climate
change impacts such as sea level rise and increased frequency and frequency. intensity of
extreme weather events (Seto et al., 2011).
It is also important to note that the degree and way in which the planet is urbanizing
varies between continents, as well as within them. This is why the next sections of this chapter
emit urban-specific analyzes for large parts of the world. These analyzes are based on the urban
population projections provided by the United Nations (UN), the only provider of such data on a
global scale (Seto et al., 2012). Like all other projections, those of the UN could be influenced by
many people (factors) or events that would change the rate of urbanization from one place to
another. For example, a deep and prolonged economic crisis, as well as a natural disaster, could
reduce the projected rate of urbanization. The cities of Detroit and New Orleans are examples
(UN, 2014).
1.1.1 The situation in Asia
Asia is the largest continent in the world, accounting for 30% of the land mass and home to 60%
of the world’s population (UN, 2014, UN-Habitat, 2010a). Because of its geographical reach, it
also knows strong contrasts in terms of its level of urbanization. Overall, its population remains
predominantly rural at 46%. Bangladesh, Vietnam, India, Laos, and Thailand are examples of
predominantly rural countries, while Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, and Indonesia have
predominantly urban populations (Seto, 2013, UN, 2018). . Despite these differences, three broad
trends can be seen across the continent.
The first trend is that Asia will experience, in absolute terms, the highest urban growth in the
world in the coming decades. The urban population of Asia is projected to increase by one
billion by 2050 (UN, 2014). The fastest growing cities are small, with a population of one
million or less (UN-Habitat, 2010a). Compared to large cities, they are more limited in terms of
human and financial resources (UN-Habitat, 2010a). This will limit the possibilities of protecting
biodiversity against the impacts of urbanization.
The second trend is that the expansion of urbanized surfaces will occur mainly in China and
India (Seto et al., 2012, Seto, 2013). In China, urban sprawl is expected to create an 1,800 km
urban corridor from Hangzhou to Shenyang (SCBD, 2012). In India, a 1,500 km corridor is
expected to develop between Mumbai and Delhi, two of the largest cities in the world (UNHabitat, 2010a). These huge urban areas will transform entire regions and will have significant
impacts on habitats and biodiversity. And this, especially since this urban development will
occur within several hotspots of biodiversity.
The latest trend seen in Asia is the investment of large capital in Asian deltas. This has the effect
of transforming local economies, traditionally based on agriculture, into economies based on
industry, technology and services. Likewise, it causes fundamental changes in the landscapes and
ecosystems present (Seto, 2011, Seto, 2013). For example, the Pearl River Delta in China
reportedly lost 11% of its fertile land between 1990 and 1996 due to economic development
(Seto et al., 2000). In addition, the construction of infrastructure, such as dams on rivers, disrupts
the sediment supply of the delta and changes its natural geomorphology (Seto, 2011).
In conclusion, the transition to urbanization in Asia has acted as a driver of economic growth in
several countries. It has reduced poverty across the continent (UN-Habitat, 2010a). With 25 to 35
percent of the urban population living in slums, there is still some way to go to reduce urban
inequalities (UN-Habitat, 2013). Urban transition has also led to the emergence of Asian
megacities; these are found mainly in India and China and pose serious challenges in terms of
urban planning and the environment (UN, 2014, UN-Habitat, 2010a). It should be noted that
Asian cities are characterized by a high population density. Urban densities range from 10,000 to
20,000 inhabitants per km2, which is about twice as much as in Latin America, three times
higher than in Europe and ten times higher than in North America (UN-Habitat, 2010a). Despite
this high density, the scale of urbanization in Asia is putting enormous pressure on natural
resources. On average, more than 20,000 new dwellings are needed every day to meet the needs
of urban dwellers, and 10 km2 of land, mostly farmland, is converted daily into urban areas
(UNHabitat, 2010a).
1.1.2 The situation of Africa
Although there is great variation among the 54 African countries, the total population remains
mostly rural at 60%. This trend is expected to continue until 2035 (UN, 2018). Africa has one of
the highest rates of urban growth in the world. The fastest growing subregions are East Africa
followed by West Africa. This massive urbanization process is the result of strong natural
population growth and the migration of part of the population to cities (UN-Habitat, 2018).
Africa is urbanizing twice as fast as Europe has done. 14% of Africans lived in the city in 1950,
today they are 40%. A spectacular pace, too fast even because the services and the infrastructures
do not develop on the same tempo. The suburbs of some metropolises are giant shantytowns.
Today, governments no longer know how to finance their urban growth. Most of this growth
continues to be absorbed by cities of one million people or less. These small towns have fewer
human and financial resources than big cities and will not be able to cope with such rapid
urbanization. Without the necessary infrastructure, it is likely that the majority of new urban
dwellers will reside in slums or shanty towns (UN-Habitat, 2014).
Unlike other continents, the transition to urbanization in Africa came earlier than
industrialization. This means that there is a shortage of employment opportunities in cities and
that urban dwellers often have to work in the informal sector (all economic activities that are
outside the gaze or regulation of the state) where jobs are low (Anderson et al., 2013). While the
majority of urban dwellers struggle for survival, political or business elite groups thrive
economically. These inequalities and massive poverty make socio-economic development a
priority for African cities (UNHabitat, 2014).
The impact of urbanization on land use in Africa is unique. Because of the low level of formal
employment, urban dwellers are extremely dependent on ecosystem services for their water, food
and fuel supplies. Firewood, for example, is one of the main causes of deforestation. In addition,
the rapid growth of the urban population has prompted many farmers to convert their forest into
fields in order to supply cities (Anderson et al., 2013). The direct impact of urbanization will be
an increase in urbanized areas of around 600% over the period 2000-2030. The regions that will
be most affected by this include: the Nile, the Guinean coast, the northern shores of Lake
Victoria and Tanganyika, the Kano region in northern Nigeria and the Addis Ababa region in
Ethiopia (Seto et al., 2012). Many of these areas are ecologically sensitive areas (Myers et al.,
2001, SCBD, 2012).
In sum, the rapid urbanization and poverty faced by cities in Africa remain constraints for
biodiversity conservation. In addition to these constraints, there is also political instability,
corruption, limited financial and human resources of local governments, and lack of knowledge
to deal with complex environmental issues (Anderson et al., 2013). International funds and
programs are available to implement or fund environmental projects (Anderson et al., 2013). In
addition, the protection of biodiversity can be used to combat extreme poverty (Schäffler and
Swilling, 2013).
1.1.2 The situation in Latin America and the Caribbean
On average, 80% of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean live in cities. Two
countries, Mexico and Brazil, contribute to more than half of this urban population. Although
Latin America has several megacities, such as Mexico City, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the
majority of the population lives in smaller cities (UN, 2014).
Overall, the transition to urbanization occurred between 1940 and 1990, during which time the
urban population grew from 40% to 70%. This transition is the result of rapid population growth
and intensive rural-urban migration (UN-Habitat, 2012). These processes have now decelerated,
and the urban growth rate is now comparable to that of Europe and North America, ie 0.3% (UNHabitat, 2012, UN, 2014). The growth of cities is now explained by a more complex migration
that occurs mainly between urban areas. This migration sometimes crosses borders and is the
result of a population in search of prosperity (UN-Habitat 2012).
Due to the urban explosion of the past, the number of cities in Latin America and the Caribbean
has increased sixfold in the last 50 years, while rural areas have been abandoned (UN-Habitat,
2012). This has created a frontier of deforestation that has progressed and will continue to
progress with the development of cities (SCBD, 2012). This loss of natural habitats is
particularly worrying for Latin America, as many of its regions are of great biological
importance, such as the Amazon rainforest and seven biodiversity hotspots (Myers et al, 2000).
A characteristic of the urban population in Latin America is that it has extreme social and
economic inequalities. On the one hand, the poorest, that is 24% of the population, live in
informal settlements on the outskirts of cities (Pauchard and Barbosa, 2013). Access to education
and health services, availability of jobs and access to green public spaces are often reduced (UNHabitat, 2012). In addition, these neighborhoods are frequently built on sensitive areas, such as
riparian corridors, wetlands and coastal ecosystems, and are therefor…
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