Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way summary Attached, please the article and summarize it (max 2 pages). First, read it (very) carefully,

Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way summary Attached, please the article and summarize it (max 2 pages). First, read it (very) carefully, jot down main and important points and write down the summary in your own words. Please put the article away from your elbow while summarizing. You should make a general Statement about the article’s overall subject, focus, and conclusions. Be sure to stick to the article’s main points. Also, mention what is missing or if it were you what would you have included in it? Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries
Are Leading the Way
Steven Radelet
CGD Brief
Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way unearths the deep
political and economic changes underway in these countries. It takes a fresh
approach by not treating sub-Saharan Africa as a monolithic entity and
recognizes instead the different dynamics in countries across the region. It
examines three groups of countries: the emerging countries, oil exporters
(where progress has been uneven and volatile), and others (where there has
been little progress).
Emerging Africa explores five fundamental changes underway in the emerging countries: (1) more democratic and accountable governments; (2) more
sensible economic policies; (3) the end of the debt crisis and changing relationships with donors; (4) the spread of new technologies; and (5) the emergence of a new generation of policymakers, activists, and business leaders.
The Emerging Countries of Africa
Seventeen emerging African countries—home to more than 300 million people—have undergone dramatic changes in economic growth, poverty reduction, and political accountability
since the mid-1990s. Another six “threshold” countries have seen promising but less dramatic
change (see map).
The transformation in these countries has been little noticed by the outside world and is too
often overshadowed by negative news from other African countries. But the break from the
past is clear.
Consider the economic turnaround in the 17 emerging countries: between 1975 and 1995,
their economic growth per capita was essentially zero. But between 1996 and 2008, they
achieved growth averaging 3.2 percent a year per capita, equivalent to overall GDP growth
exceeding 5 percent a year. That growth has powered a full 50 percent increase in average
incomes in just 13 years (see figure 1).
This brief is based on Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries Are Leading the Way by Steven Radelet (Washington, D.C.: CGD, 2010).
Steven Radelet was a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development from 2002 to 2010 and served as an economic advisor
to the government of Liberia from 2005 to 2009. The Center for Global Development is grateful for contributions from Jennifer Ward
Oppenheimer, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in support of this work.
© Center for Global Development. All Rights Reserved.
September 2010
There’s good news out of Africa. Seventeen emerging countries are putting
behind them the conflict, stagnation, and dictatorships of the past. Since
the mid-1990s, these countries have defied the old negative stereotypes of
poverty and failure by achieving steady economic growth, deepening democracy, improving governance, and decreasing poverty.
Emerging Africa: Average Growth Rates per Capita, 1996–2008
September 2010
Sierra Leone
Burkina Faso
d’Ivoire Ghana
–0.9% 2.6%
Equatorial Guinea
São Tomé & Príncipe
Cen. African Rep.
Emerging countries
Threshold countries
Other countries
Oil Exporters
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Rwanda 3.7%
Burundi –0.7%
South Africa
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators; data for South African Reserve Bank.
It’s not just growth: trade and investment have doubled,
school enrollments are rising, and health indicators are
improving. The share of people living in poverty has declined from 59 percent to 48 percent. Democracy, while
still flawed, has become the norm rather than the exception.
Governance has slowly but steadily improved. To be sure,
these countries are far from perfect. They face many challenges, and their continued success is far from certain. But
deep changes are taking place in the emerging countries,
and their future prospects look bright.
Five Fundamental Changes
The turnaround in emerging Africa is neither temporary nor
simply the result of favorable commodity prices. The revival
persisted through the global recession of the late 1990s,
and these countries weathered the 2009 global economic
crisis better than most developing countries. Something
deeper is at work.
Emerging Africa points to five fundamental changes underway in these countries. The first two ignited the turnaround
in the 1990s and helped sustain it over time; the next three
took hold later and are helping sustain progress.
1. More democratic and accountable governments.
Africa’s troubles have been, in large part, a failure of leadership. Too many leaders have ruled by intimidation, violence,
and brute force. But in the 1980s, many authoritarian governments lost their legitimacy and the economic and financial resources to maintain control. Protestors began to call
for change, and governments lost the backing of key supporters. With the end of the Cold War and apartheid in the
early 1990s, authoritarian leaders were forced to give way
Democracy means not only elections
but greater adherence to basic political and civil rights, more freedom of
the press, and stronger political institutions. Not all of the emerging countries
are democracies, but there has been a
clear shift toward greater political accountability and improved governance
more broadly. Democratic progress
has been uneven and remains incomplete, but it has been—and will continue to be—at the core of emerging
Africa’s renaissance.
2. More sensible economic
Figure 1. Surging Growth in the Emerging Countries
Average Annual Growth in Income per Capita
Oil exporters
Other countries
Note: Data for oil exporters exclude Angola and Equatorial Guinea.
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators Online.
Twenty years ago, nearly all African
economies were effectively bankrupt, with large budget deficits, double-digit inflation, growing debt burdens, thriving
black markets, shortages of basic commodities, and rising
poverty. Economic mismanagement and the heavy hand of
the state scared off investors, provoked capital flight, and
led to stagnation and rising poverty.
In the late 1980s, the emerging countries began to implement much stronger economic policies. Today, black markets are but a distant memory. Budget and trade deficits are
more sustainable. The role of the state is smaller, the business
environment is friendlier, and trade and investment barriers
are lower.
3. The end of the debt crisis and major changes in
relationships with the international community.
The 1980s debt crisis hit Africa particularly hard. Stagnant
economies and heavy borrowing created huge debt burdens.
As the crisis deepened, the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) took on a much more prominent role, and IMF–World
Bank “stabilization and structural adjustment” programs
became central to economic policymaking and the relationship between African countries and the donor community.
Some middle-income countries began to resolve their debt
problems in the early 1990s, but it took another decade or
more for low-income countries to get out from under their
debt burdens through the Heavily Indebted Poor Country
(HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative
(MDRI). Of the 40 countries eligible for the HIPC program,
36 have received at least the first stage of HIPC debt
Today, the debt crisis is finally winding down. Debt burdens
are significantly lower, freeing up financial resources and
relieving the time burden on senior policymakers. But perhaps even more important, relationships with donors have
become much healthier. Country-led Poverty Reduction Strategies have replaced structural adjustment programs at the
center of policymaking, providing a stronger basis for donor
support to bolster future development going forward.
4. New technologies that are creating new
opportunities for business and political
Cell phones are becoming ubiquitous across Africa, and
Internet access is growing quickly. In the most remote corners
of the countryside, cell phones are relaying information on
prices and shipments of goods in real time and facilitating
the transfer of funds with simple text messages. The Internet is
opening new economic opportunities and creating jobs that
did not exist before, such as data entry and other services.
And both are widening political involvement by enabling
September 2010
to democratic governments. The number of democracies in sub-Saharan
Africa jumped from just 3 in 1989 to
23 in 2008, including most of the 17
emerging countries.
Global Development works to reduce global
poverty and inequality through rigorous research and active
engagement with the policy community to make the world a more
prosperous, just, and safe place for us all. The policies and practices of
the United States and other rich countries, the emerging powers, and
international institutions and corporations have
significant impacts
on the developing world’s poor people. We aim to improve these policies
and practices through research and policy engagement to expand
opportunities, reduce inequalities, and
the debate and flow of information that are the backbone of
political accountability and transparency.
5. A new generation of policymakers, activists, and
business leaders.
A new generation of savvy, sharp, and entrepreneurial leaders is emerging across Africa. They are rising through the
ranks of government, starting up businesses, working as local
representatives of multinational corporations, leading local
NGOs and activist groups, and taking an increasing role in
political leadership. They are fed up with the unaccountable
governments and economic stagnation of the past and are
bringing new ideas and new vision, often fortified by travel
abroad and a globalized outlook. With the new generation
at the helm, Africa’s future looks increasingly bright.
The Road Ahead
The five changes described above provide the foundation for continued success in the emerging countries, but
the turnaround is young and remains fragile. The emerging countries face several challenges, including the need
to deepen democracy and strengthen governance, diversify
their economies to create new economic opportunities for
a growing workforce, manage the role of China to ensure
that the benefits outweigh the risks, adapt to the effects of
climate change, and build strong education and health systems. Unleashing the power of girls and women will be central to maximizing the speed, equity, and sustainability of
improve lives
Meeting these challenges will not be easy; it will require
difficult choices, effective leadership, and hard work by the
citizens of the emerging countries. Their future is primarily
in their own hands: the decisions they make, the priorities
they set, and the institutions they establish. Their record since
the mid-1990s in these areas has been strong, and there is
great promise for the future.
While emerging Africa holds the keys to its future, the international community can play an important supporting role.
Donors can make aid more effective by letting the emerging
countries take the lead in establishing priorities and implementing programs, and they can make larger and more
enduring commitments. Both donors and recipients need
to hold themselves more accountable for achieving results.
The rich countries can level the playing field and help spur
new economic opportunities in the emerging countries by
reducing barriers to trade, such as agricultural subsidies and
high tariffs on finished products. And they can vocally stand
with the emerging countries, highlighting their progress and
giving them the credibility and respect they deserve for the
progress they have made so far.
Africa’s emerging countries will undoubtedly face challenges,
but they have shown that nations once considered failures
can turn around and climb out of poverty. The renaissance
in emerging Africa provides hope for some of the most challenged countries in the world that it is possible to combat
poverty, secure peace, increase prosperity, and widen the
global circle of development.

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