Philosophical Ideas of The Enlightenment Philosophical ideas of the Enlightenment, such as a social contract between people and their government, contributed to the development of a (5 points)
strengthened bond between colonial inhabitants and traditional monarchs
belief in the efficiency and impartiality of governments centered on hereditary privilege
colonial confidence in the effectiveness of republican self-government
sense of obligation among the majority of colonists to remain loyal to Britain
What was the significance of the boundary created by the Proclamation of 1763? (5 points)
It brought a long period of peace between English colonial settlers and American Indian groups living in the interior of the continent.
It was an attempt to prevent colonial and American Indian border conflicts that failed as people rushed in to claim abandoned lands.
It generated renewed conflict among native groups of people, some of whom had agreed to the line whereas others had not.
It established a peaceful line of trading posts to encourage commerce between colonists and native residents on both sides of the line.
Where was nativist sentiment strongest, with the greatest potential for violence, in the early to mid 1800s? (5 points)
Which of the following was a direct consequence of the European trading of firearms with Native Americans? (5 points)
English insistence that the American Indians bow to the supreme authority of their king
Increased death toll and violence of King Philip’s War
Native Americans’ refusal to build fences to protect planted fields
Formation of praying towns by Native American Christian converts
“Art. 3. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.”—From the Northwest Ordinance, 1787
This section of the Northwest Ordinance sought to prevent conflicts with native groups brought on by (5 points)
increases in coastal trade
the French and Indian War
the Proclamation of 1763
continued settlement to the west
Which of the following was a primary cause of the breakdown in relations between American Indians and the British colonists? (5 points)
Distrust of foreign practices and religion
American Indians’ open and early hostility
Competition for food and other resources
British refusal to consider intermarriage
“Almost every year, from 1581 onward, the mariners of the Netherlands strove, by east and by west, to pass the barrier that America interposed between them and the Eastern trade they coveted … They would not be hurried; they took their time to think it over, as Dutchmen will; but at length they conceived an immense project for acquiring all the trade, or the best part of it, of both the West and the East … In 1609, quite inadvertently, Henry Hudson discovered it … received a visit from some Indians with native commodities to exchange for knives and beads … They were affable, but untrustworthy, stealing what they could lay their hands on, and a few days later shooting arrows at a boatload of seamen from the ship, and killing one John Colman. Hudson went ashore, and was honored with dances and chants; upon the whole, the impression mutually created seems to have been favorable.”—Julian Hawthorne, from The History of the United States from 1492 TO 1910, V1
Hudson’s experience is typical of Dutch interaction with Native Americans in that it was (5 points)
defined by lucrative dealings with neither side engaging in misconduct
marked by mutually beneficial exchanges marred by a few American Indian misdeeds
plagued by unpleasant and unproductive interactions
tainted by animosity emanating from both groups
Which of the following was true of the growing colonial independence movement? (5 points)
It was begun and carried out mostly by farmers and traders in the West, who struggled with native raids.
The leaders were wealthy landowners, as small farmers were not subject to British taxation.
No violence erupted until after British officials and the king refused to hear the colonial petitions.
People from many classes and careers eventually supported it as a fight for their rights as citizens.
“For the increase of the shipping and the encouragement of the navigation of this nation, which under the good providence and protection of God is so great a means of the welfare and safety of this Commonwealth: be it enacted by this present Parliament, and the authority thereof, that from and after the first day of December, one thousand six hundred fifty and one, and from thence forwards, no goods or commodities whatsoever of the growth, production or manufacture of Asia, Africa or America, or of any part thereof; or of any islands belonging to them, … shall be imported or brought into this Commonwealth of England, … in any other ship or ships, vessel or vessels whatsoever, but only in such as do truly and without fraud belong only to the people of this Commonwealth, … under the penalty of the forfeiture and loss of all the goods that shall be imported contrary to this act.”—From the Navigation Act, 1651
Restrictions outlined in acts such as the Navigation Act reflect which of the following? (5 points)
Attempts to promote a policy of mercantilism
Ideology that grew from the Glorious Revolution
Response to booming piracy and privateering
Acceptance of salutary neglect policies
How was Jay’s Treaty controversial and supportive of early political parties, despite George Washington’s wishes? (5 points)
The treaty enforced removal of the British soldiers from the West but offered them citizenship.
The treaty was in effect a violation of the alliance between the United States and France.
The treaty failed to address impressment but gave preferable treatment to British imports.
The treaty restored some of the British territorial claims in exchange for military protection.
Question refers to the excerpt below.
“From the fact that the Indians are barbarians it does not necessarily follow that they are incapable of government and have to be ruled by others, except to be taught about the Catholic faith and to be admitted to the holy sacraments. They are not ignorant, inhuman, or bestial. Rather, long before they had heard the word Spaniard they had properly organized states, wisely ordered by excellent laws, religion, and custom. They cultivated friendship and, bound together in common fellowship, lived in populous cities in which they wisely administered the affairs of both peace and war justly and equitably, truly governed by laws that at very many points surpass ours … Yet even if we were to grant that this race has no keenness of mind or artistic ability, certainly they are not, in consequence, obliged to submit themselves to those who are more intelligent and to adopt their ways, so that, if they refuse, they may be subdued by having war waged against them and be enslaved … We are bound by natural law to embrace virtue … No one, however, is punished for being bad unless he is guilty of rebellion. Where the Catholic faith has been preached in a Christian manner as it ought to be, all men are bound by natural law to accept it, yet no one is forced to accept the faith of Christ.”—Bartolome de las Casas, from In Defense of the Indians, c.1550
How do the views expressed in the excerpt about American Indians compare with those of the U.S. government after the Civil War? (5 points)
Las Casas’s views focused mostly on the economic potential of the American Indians, while the U.S. government wanted mostly to ensure that American Indians retained their tribal identities.
Las Casas was primarily concerned with the spiritual improvement of the American Indians, while the U.S. government hoped to assimilate Indians so that they would behave more like white Americans.
Both thought that American Indian labor should be used to economically benefit the country in possession of the land.
Both thought land should be taken from the American Indians, but the U.S. government wanted American Indians to be paid for it, while Las Casas did not.
Question refers to the excerpt below.
“We have not sought to extend our territorial possessions by conquest, or our republican institutions over a reluctant people. It was the deliberate homage of each people to the great principle of our federative union. If we consider the extent of territory involved in the annexation, its prospective influence on America, the means by which it has been accomplished, springing purely from the choice of the people themselves to share the blessings of our union, the history of the world may be challenged to furnish a parallel … We may rejoice that the tranquil and pervading influence of the American principle of self-government was sufficient to defeat the purposes of British and French interference … From this example European Governments may learn how vain diplomatic arts and intrigues must ever prove upon this continent against that system of self-government which seems natural to our soil, and which will ever resist foreign interference.”—James Polk, from the State of the Union Address, December 2, 1845
Polk’s State of the Union Address, although celebratory, was a precursor to (5 points)
increased South American expansion in the name of cultural superiority
an altered American Indian culture and erosion of the group’s status
further disputes with Britain and France over American boundaries
annexation of more city-states east of the Mississippi River, north of the Hudson River