The Federalist Paper Annotation Annotation Worksheet
(Who wrote it or created? Why was it written? What is it
trying to do to or for its readers? What is it? Where does it appear? When was
it published? )
(What does the text say? What are its main points/claims? Sub-
claims? What kind of support does the author use to back these claims up?
What did you find most interesting?)/
What are THREE golden lines from the text (quotes that stood out to you
(Is the text convincing? Why or why not? What new knowledge
did you get from reading this text? What strategies does the author use to
(What questions do you have about the text? What would you
ask the author if you could speak to him or her directly) How to Mark a Book
By Mortimer J. Adler, Ph.D.
You know you have to read “between the lines” to get the most out of
anything. I want to persuade you to do something equally important in
the course of your reading. I want to persuade you to write between
the lines. Unless you do, you are not likely to do the most efficient
kind of reading.
I contend, quite bluntly, that marking up a book is not an act of
mutilation but of love. You shouldn’t mark up a book which isn’t yours.
Librarians (or your friends) who lend you books expect you to keep
them clean, and you should. If you decide that I am right about the
usefulness of marking books, you will have to buy them. Most of the
world’s great books are available today, in reprint editions.
There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the
property right you establish by paying for it, just as you pay for
clothes and furniture. But this act of purchase is only the prelude to
possession. Full ownership comes only when you have made it a part
of yourself, and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing
in it. An illustration may make the point clear. You buy a beefsteak
and transfer it from the butcher’s icebox to your own. But you do not
own the beefsteak in the most important sense until you consume it
and get it into your bloodstream. I am arguing that books, too, must
be absorbed in your blood stream to do you any good.
Confusion about what it means to “own” a book leads people to a false
reverence for paper, binding, and type — a respect for the physical
thing — the craft of the printer rather than the genius of the author.
They forget that it is possible for a man to acquire the idea, to possess
the beauty, which a great book contains, without staking his claim by
pasting his bookplate inside the cover. Having a fine library doesn’t
prove that its owner has a mind enriched by books; it proves nothing
more than that he, his father, or his wife, was rich enough to buy
There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard
sets and best sellers — unread, untouched. (This deluded individual
owns woodpulp and ink, not books.) The second has a great many
books — a few of them read through, most of them dipped into, but all
of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. (This person
would probably like to make books his own, but is restrained by a
false respect for their physical appearance.) The third has a few books
or many — every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and
loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled in from front to
back. (This man owns books.)
Is it false respect, you may ask, to preserve intact and unblemished a
beautifully printed book, an elegantly bound edition? Of course not.
I’d no more scribble all over a first edition of ‘Paradise Lost’ than I’d
give my baby a set of crayons and an original Rembrandt. I wouldn’t
mark up a painting or a statue. Its soul, so to speak, is inseparable
from its body. And the beauty of a rare edition or of a richly
manufactured volume is like that of a painting or a statue.
But the soul of a book “can” be separate from its body. A book is more
like the score of a piece of music than it is like a painting. No great
musician confuses a symphony with the printed sheets of music.
Arturo Toscanini reveres Brahms, but Toscanini’s score of the G minor
Symphony is so thoroughly marked up that no one but the maestro
himself can read it. The reason why a great conductor makes
notations on his musical scores — marks them up again and again each
time he returns to study them–is the reason why you should mark
your books. If your respect for magnificent binding or typography gets
in the way, buy yourself a cheap edition and pay your respects to the
Why is marking up a book indispensable to reading? First, it keeps
you awake. (And I don’t mean merely conscious; I mean awake.) In the
second place; reading, if it is active, is thinking, and thinking tends to
express itself in words, spoken or written. The marked book is usually
the thought-through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the
thoughts you had, or the thoughts the author expressed. Let me
develop these three points.
If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time, it must
be active. You can’t let your eyes glide across the lines of a book and
come up with an understanding of what you have read. Now an
ordinary piece of light fiction, like, say, “Gone With the Wind,” doesn’t
require the most active kind of reading. The books you read for
pleasure can be read in a state of relaxation, and nothing is lost. But a
great book, rich in ideas and beauty, a book that raises and tries to
answer great fundamental questions, demands the most active
reading of which you are capable. You don’t absorb the ideas of John
Dewey the way you absorb the crooning of Mr. Vallee. You have to
reach for them. That you cannot do while you’re asleep.
If, when you’ve finished reading a book, the pages are filled with your
notes, you know that you read actively. The most famous “active”
reader of great books I know is President Hutchins, of the University
of Chicago. He also has the hardest schedule of business activities of
any man I know. He invariably reads with a pencil, and sometimes,
when he picks up a book and pencil in the evening, he finds himself,
instead of making intelligent notes, drawing what he calls ‘caviar
factories’ on the margins. When that happens, he puts the book down.
He knows he’s too tired to read, and he’s just wasting time.
But, you may ask, why is writing necessary? Well, the physical act of
writing, with your own hand, brings words and sentences more
sharply before your mind and preserves them better in your memory.
To set down your reaction to important words and sentences you have
read, and the questions they have raised in your mind, is to preserve
those reactions and sharpen those questions.
Even if you wrote on a scratch pad, and threw the paper away when
you had finished writing, your grasp of the book would be surer. But
you don’t have to throw the paper away. The margins (top as bottom,
and well as side), the end-papers, the very space between the lines,
are all available. They aren’t sacred. And, best of all, your marks and
notes become an integral part of the book and stay there forever. You
can pick up the book the following week or year, and there are all
your points of agreement, disagreement, doubt, and inquiry. It’s like
resuming an interrupted conversation with the advantage of being
able to pick up where you left off.
And that is exactly what reading a book should be: a conversation
between you and the author. Presumably he knows more about the
subject than you do; naturally, you’ll have the proper humility as you
approach him. But don’t let anybody tell you that a reader is supposed
to be solely on the receiving end. Understanding is a two-way
operation; learning doesn’t consist in being an empty receptacle. The
learner has to question himself and question the teacher. He even has
to argue with the teacher, once he understands what the teacher is
saying. And marking a book is literally an expression of differences, or
agreements of opinion, with the author.
There are all kinds of devices for marking a book intelligently and
fruitfully. Here’s the way I do it:
Underlining (or highlighting)
: of major points, of important
or forceful statements.
Vertical lines at the margin
: to emphasize a statement
Star, asterisk, or other doo-dad at the margin
: to be used
sparingly, to emphasize the ten or twenty most important
statements in the book. (You may want to fold the bottom comer
of each page on which you use such marks. It won’t hurt the
sturdy paper on which most modern books are printed, and you
will be able take the book off the shelf at any time and, by
opening it at the folded-corner page, refresh your recollection of
Numbers in the margin
: to indicate the sequence of points the
author makes in developing a single argument.
Numbers of other pages in the margin
: to indicate where
else in the book the author made points relevant to the point
marked; to tie up the ideas in a book, which, though they may
be separated by many pages, belong together.
Circling or highlighting of key words or phrases
Writing in the margin, or at the top or bottom of the page,
for the sake of
: recording questions (and perhaps answers)
which a passage raised in your mind; reducing a complicated
discussion to a simple statement; recording the sequence of
major points right through the books. I use the end-papers at
the back of the book to make a personal index of the author’s
points in the order of their appearance.
The front end-papers are to me the most important. Some people
reserve them for a fancy bookplate. I reserve them for fancy thinking.
After I have finished reading the book and making my personal index
on the back end-papers, I turn to the front and try to outline the book,
not page by page or point by point (I’ve already done that at the
back), but as an integrated structure, with a basic unity and an order
of parts. This outline is, to me, the measure of my understanding of
If you’re a die-hard anti-book-marker, you may object that the
margins, the space between the lines, and the end-papers don’t give
you room enough. All right. How about using a scratch pad slightly
smaller than the page-size of the book — so that the edges of the
sheets won’t protrude? Make your index, outlines and even your notes
on the pad, and then insert these sheets permanently inside the front
and back covers of the book.
Or, you may say that this business of marking books is going to slow
up your reading. It probably will. That’s one of the reasons for doing
it. Most of us have been taken in by the notion that speed of reading is
a measure of our intelligence. There is no such thing as the right
speed for intelligent reading. Some things should be read quickly and
effortlessly and some should be read slowly and even laboriously. The
sign of intelligence in reading is the ability to read different things
differently according to their worth. In the case of good books, the
point is not to see how many of them you can get through, but rather
how many can get through you — how many you can make your own. A
few friends are better than a thousand acquaintances. If this be your
aim, as it should be, you will not be impatient if it takes more time and
effort to read a great book than it does a newspaper.
You may have one final objection to marking books. You can’t lend
them to your friends because nobody else can read them without
being distracted by your notes. Furthermore, you won’t want to lend
them because a marked copy is kind of an intellectual diary, and
lending it is almost like giving your mind away.
If your friend wishes to read your
The Federalist Papers
, tell him gently but firmly, to buy a copy. You
will lend him your car or your coat — but your books are as much a
part of you as your head or your heart.
Purchase answer to see full