Community Policing Revise your Week 4 Key Assignment draft based on the instructor’s feedback. Once you have finished revising, respond to the following in 3 additional pages, answering the following questions: Describe some of the unique ethical problems that community police officers can pose. Discuss how a change in police management styles can influence the police–community relationship. What types of roles do contemporary police officers find themselves in given the shift toward community policing? What services can be offered to citizens that will help improve crime prevention in a community? Explain. What best practices can you foresee as being used to implement these additional community services? Explain. Select 1 service, such as community watch, and explain how you would be able to improve it to prevent crime within a community. Be specific in your recommendation, and support your arguments with academic and scholarly resources. Be sure to reference all sources using APA style. Running head: COMMUNITY POLICING
January 30th 2019
Community policing is a problem-solving approach that emphasizes establishing positive
working relationships and fostering partnerships with community members as well as other
security stakeholders in a bid to prevent and control crime (Cordner, 2014). Community policing
principles and priorities are set to ensure improved prevention and response to crimes and are
undoubtedly the panacea for the security problems that Clermont city faces. Community policing
will increase citizen input into security in crime prevention and control. Adopting a community
based policing approach will incorporate a strong commitment towards the necessity and value
of citizen involvement in police priorities and policies of combating crime in the city.
Community policing ensures that citizens are responsive in terms of airing their opinions
on how they would like to be served by the police (Skogan, 2006). It will also enhance citizen
accountability to their own security, by working in close partnership with the police. Community
policing will also ensure that the police department obtains maximum citizen cooperation and
support needed, being truly responsive to the city’s security concerns. Increased transparency
due to community involvement will ensure police gain more accountability for their policing
actions (Skogan, 2006). Community policing is the panacea for the city’s security problem
because it will broaden the scope and functions of the police department from the narrowed roles
of crime fighting and crime fighting.
The role of police officers will increase to include other functions such as conflict
resolution, solving problems, helping crime victims, crime risk management, apprehension and
enforcement to reduce crime (Cordner, 2014). Community policing will ensure that police will
interact with citizens in a friendly, caring and open way, thus increasing satisfaction, trust and
minimizing complaints among citizens. The strategy will eliminate barriers that exist between
citizens and police, and thus ensure that community members get to understand how to work
with the department. Through working closely with citizens and understanding their security
concerns, the city’s police department can help eradicate stereotypes and enhance tolerance.
Implementation of community policing could be challenging especially for the officers
and supervisors, who have been used to the traditional policing. There are certain changes in
roles and responsibilities which officers are expected to adopt when moving towards a
community policing approach. The first problem in moving from the traditional approach to
community policing involves the problem-solving attribute and skills of officers and supervisors.
Community policing is a more proactive approach to law enforcement, compared to the
traditional approach which is a rather reactive approach (Kappeler & Gaines, 2012).
Problem-solving skills in relation to crime prevention are therefore key requirements for
officers to effectively implement this approach. It, however, may be a concern for them in
adapting to such skills of the problem-solving process. Through training on the problem-solving
process and skills, this concern can be overcome. Police officers and other supervisors within the
department may be required to work independently of the community I identifying and solving
security problems Kappeler & Gaines, 2012). Adequate training in problem-solving is therefore
required as a way of addressing this concern. Moving towards community policing approach
from the traditional policing may be challenging, as officers and supervisors will be required to
adjust from the typical police culture when performing their assigned duties.
Community policing requires officers to drift away from the traditional practices of law
enforcement and adopt a friendlier, softer style that empowers and engages the community in
enhancing security within the city (Worrall & Marenin, 2008). Community policing also calls for
partnerships, collaborations, team-building, and information sharing between the police
department and the community. These attributes are not present n the traditional policing and
therefore officers may find it difficult to effectively establish partnerships and information
sharing channels with the community and other security stakeholders. Adequate training on team
building, partnering and information sharing should be offered to officers and supervisors, as a
way of handling this concern.
The city’s police department will need to be reorganized in order to accommodate
community policing. A community relations coordinator office will need to be established, to
oversee the enhancement of community trust between the citizens and the department through
developing and cultivating rapport with organizations and partners to foster mutually helpful
relations. The office will also coordinate public safety resources that empower the community
towards crime prevention. The public information and relations unit of the department will be
reorganized, to ensure effective and adequate communication of security matters and policies to
the public thus ensuring collaborations with all stakeholders (Skogan, 2006). This unit will
increasingly become the main liaison between the public and the department, in communicating
the policies, plans and activities of improving security in the city.
The patrol unit will be reorganized to include a patrol squad that provides first hand
policing services to the city residents round the clock, in a suppressive and preventive approach
for minimizing the prevalence of crime through tracing, apprehending criminals and enforcing
laws. The patrol unit of the department will prioritize on proactive strategies and will work
closely with community members. The city’s security planning team will incorporate
representatives from all security stakeholders in the city, who will raise the issue, concerns and
opinions of the community in regards to security and crime prevention. Community policing
recognizes the role and accountability of both the police and community in crime prevention,
hence changes will be made at all levels within the department, to incorporate community
partnerships and responsibilities (Cordner, 2014).
Community policing will widen the scope of the city’s police department, but not
necessarily increase the workload. Officers will need to create more time to work and interact
with the community in identifying and solving security problems. This new approach will require
more emphasis on professional system management and investigative skills in order to acquire
highly important information support. Problems that have not previously been analyzed will
require informational support, and for incorporation of external data, outside the department.
Officers have to do more than mere identification and forecasting of crime patterns and
supplement tactical analysis with strategic analysis.
Effective community policing will require officers to extensively gather information from
the community, through various unconventional methods such as surveys, and interactions with
certain community institutions (Skogan, 2004). However, these duties of information sharing,
communication, and interactions can be aided by technological innovations that are integrated
community policing, thus reducing the officers’ workload. The computerized system of
information sharing such as the use of mobile communication and online forums will enhance
community engagement. Additionally, community policing builds trust between police and
citizens, thus welcoming citizens to assist the police in investigations, detecting crimes and
predicting patterns (Skogan, 2004). From this perspective, officers share responsibilities with the
community, hence reducing the workload.
The information used to evaluate the progress of the new policing initiative will be based
on the individual and departmental behavior that assists in crime prevention. This information
will be both quantitative and qualitative. A reduced crime rate in the neighborhood, reduced
crime fear among citizens, and enhanced quality of life are essential aspects of assessing
progress. The type and number of community partnerships formed will be used to evaluate
progress since it is the objective of community policing to foster community partnerships
(Brogden & Nijhar, 2013). Community policing is a problem-solving approach to crime
prevention, hence the nature of problems and the scope or creativity of solutions offered will
measure progress in the new initiative.
Community policing has some pros that are identified with the initiative. It brings the
community members and the police department together and closer to each other, as they work
towards the common goal of crime prevention. The community is educated on their role and
accountability, and therefore feels free to approach police with more ease. The initiative helps to
identify and deter crimes, through constant patrols to get ideas on the state of security in the
neighborhood. Security problems can be solved using such ideas. The initiative generally deters
and minimizes the occurrence of crime, through increased community communication and police
presence in the local neighborhood (Brogden & Nijhar, 2013).
Some cons, however, include a struggle for power, whereby not all community members
are civic-minded, with some engaging in community policing with negative intentions. The
initiative may create deviance in communities where there are low crime rates. Crime can be
manufactured by creating a community policing norm, even n cases that do not require the help
of police. Some community members may not care about police patrolling their neighborhoods,
and may not respond or cooperate when approached by police for information (Brogden &
Nijhar, 2013). This may even worsen the relationships between police and the community.
Planning is the key to crime deterrence and prevention. It is based on identified problems
and their possible solutions. Planning is important in crime prevention because it identifies
various community safety needs and brings together community-based stakeholders to identify
probable solutions that will effectively solve the needs (Landman & Liebermann, 2005).
Planning ensures that decisions or laid strategies for crime prevention are based on community
needs. It also ensures full utilization of the local community resources in fostering public safety.
Planning ensures that public safety initiatives get maximum community support for crime
Cyber crimes, sexual crimes and fraud are difficult to plan for, as part of prevention.
Cyber crimes are characterized by the attributes of skills, technology, knowledge, motives and
resources, all of which cybercriminals possess in a high degree (Moffatt, 2013). They are
difficult to plan for especially using traditional approaches because most cybercriminals are
better equipped with knowledge and resources than law enforcers. It is also difficult to identify
trends and patterns in the ever-changing cyber security field, and thus difficult to plan for.
Crimes involving sexual abuse are difficult to plan for since they are based on situational specific
incidents. On one single occasion, various factors may combine to influence the chances of the
crime occurring. Additionally, situational factors determine whether a perpetrator sexually
abuses a victim, as well as whether the idea comes to him. In improving the planning process for
further crime prevention, community members will be empowered to work together with the
police department for community safety. The ideas of community members regarding the
response to various types of crimes are welcomed.
Getting more people and keeping them involved will improve the planning process
(Landman & Liebermann, 2005). His can be achieved by identifying key parties who should be
involved, setting clear expectations, clear, regular and frequent communication, and helping
members learn new skills and information regarding certain crimes. The planning process can
also be improved through incorporation of modern technology to learn new trends in cyber
crimes and fraud which keep on changing with time.
Personnel management is important in crime prevention because effective crime
prevention and control significantly depend on effective and proper utilization of police
personnel. Lack of proper management of police personnel is characterized by corruption,
inadequate funding, understaffing, political interference and inadequate resources (Andrews,
Bonta & Wormith, 2011). This leads to ineffective crime prevention and control because their
planning process is poor. Police personnel input is the basis of crime prevention, and thus the
level of management will determine success in crime prevention. For effective management
training and retention of personnel for improved crime prevention, increased partnerships in
detecting crimes, law enforcement, patrols and investigations are recommended, as no exception.
The police department management should collaborate with other security stakeholders in
ensuring adequate crime prevention through effective personnel management. Police need to be
provided with adequate resources and funds as well as strategies laid down to ensure that such
funds are properly utilized to achieve maximum crime prevention. Community policing program
in the city should be intensified to enhance alignment of police with the community and citizens
they serve. This will ensure that there is a positive relationship between the department personnel
and citizens. Positive relationships and friendly a friendly community will motivate personnel to
improve crime prevention, and therefore boost their retention.
Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). The risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model:
Does adding the good lives model contribute to effective crime prevention?. Criminal
Justice and Behavior, 38(7), 735-755.
Brogden, M., & Nijhar, P. (2013). Community policing. Willan.
Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook of police and policing, 148-171.
Kappeler, V. E., & Gaines, L. K. (2012). Community policing: A contemporary perspective.
Landman, K., & Liebermann, S. (2005). Planning against crime: preventing crime with people
not barriers. South African Crime Quarterly, (11).
Moffatt, R. E. (2013). Crime prevention through environmental design-a management
perspective. Canadian J. Criminology, 25, 19.
Skogan, W. G. (2004). Community policing: Can it work?. Belmont: Wadsworth/Thomson
Skogan, W. G. (2006). Police and community in Chicago: A tale of three cities. Oxford
University Press on Demand.
Worrall, J. L., & Marenin, O. (2008). Emerging liability issues in the implementation and
adoption of community oriented policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police
Strategies & Management, 21(1), 121-136.
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