Discussion blog about Hurricane Katrina Respond to a discussion blog about Hurricane Katrina with APA style one page one page, please see the instruction a

Discussion blog about Hurricane Katrina Respond to a discussion blog about Hurricane Katrina with APA style one page one page, please see the instruction and the question below Blog instructions
NOTE – Rather than answer each question and then respond to a classmate, this week (and one other),
we will try a “blog.” I will start a chain and someone will respond to me. There will only be one chain
for each group. Each person posts to that chain with his/her interpretation of the DB question
assigned to his/her group. This is an experiment to make DBs more fun and educational. Let’s see
how it goes.
A Group – Indicate what you believe to be a very significant event in the history of
emergency management. This can be a disaster, a piece of legislation, or some other defining
moment. List the impacts and outcomes of the event and defend your answer. Please
choose a modern era (last 20 years) event, other than 9/11, that had an impact on
emergency management.
A Group Blog
I’m sure I can name any number of significant events in the history of emergency management. I
would like to begin this discussion by mentioning hurricane Katrina. As you know that hurricane
occurred in the year 2005 in the Gulf area of the United States. An entire piece of legislation,PKEMRA,
helped shape emergency management promptly for decades to come. The reason this happened, is
that there were many, many problems associated with the response to this event. Among them
include failure of coordination of resources, failure of communication, failure to properly prepare and
mitigate, and ignorance about practical realities such as the level of poverty in the city of New
Orleans, Louisiana. The hurricane course did not limit its devastation to that city went as far as the
state of Mississippi. Several Eastern states as well as state of Texas had to help in taking in many of the
refugees who were victims of this monstrous hurricane. Later in the semester we will talk a little bit
about some of those lessons learned.
Please add to my comments above regarding Hurricane Katrina or add comments about some other
event or piece of emergency management legislation.
Good start Dr. Parrillo, you mention the most event devastating and costly hurricanes to
strike the United States. Due to failed infrastructure and lack of planning for needed
supplies to be delivered to the affected area, approximately 1,700 people were dead, 1
million persons were displaced, and an estimated $135 billion in damage along the Gulf
coast was incurred. (Apte & Yoho, 2011). Which helped shape emergency management
promptly for decades to come.
I would like to talk about The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004, In the beginning, the main
problem that was on The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 and helped shape emergency
management promptly for decades to come, is that there were many problems
associated with the response to this event. In this scenario, if early warning devices
were in place then maybe additional people would have been able to move inland more
quickly. I realize the power grid in some of these areas is very limited. So most of the
people affected by the tsunami did not actually know it was coming. the result was a 9.1
magnitude earthquake and was responsible for more than 227,000 deaths, more than
500,000 injured, over 2 million missing, and more than 1.5 million displaced persons
across more than 12 countries (Greenfield & Ingram, 2011). It should be noted at this
juncture that there was no tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean. Some areas,
particularly the Banda Aceh region of Sumatra in Indonesia, lacked a basic, functioning
transportation infrastructure, which imposed severe capacity constraints on the flow of
inbound supplies. (Apte & Yoho, 2011).
Apte, A., & Yoho, K. D. (2011). Strategies for logistics in case of a natural disaster (No. NPS-LM-11-188).
Hurricane Katrina was a very disastrous hurricane that foresaw the death of many
individuals. Poor infrastructure also facilitated the destruction of buildings and the loss of many
lives. This disaster, as you have mentioned, immensely shaped the disaster management system.
The risk of flooding in New Orleans brought about by hurricanes had been known for quite a
long time (CNN.com, 2018). Nothing significant had been done to improve this issue until the
occurrence of Hurricane Katrina. Improved flood protection was implemented after the
occurrence of the hurricane. The occurrence of the hurricane led to the implementation of a
reliable flood control system that was formulated based on comprehensive studies (CNN.com,
I also believe that Cyclone Nargis greatly shaped the disaster management system. This
event caused the worst natural disaster that was recorded in the history of Myannar during early
May in the year 2008 (UNEP, 2009). This disaster foresaw the death of over 138, 373
individuals. Nargis is considered among the top five deadliest cyclones of all time based on the
fatalities that were recorded. The number of fatalities during and after the disaster was high as
disease and lack of relief efforts facilitated that. Relief efforts were slowed down due to political
reasons as Myanmar’s military rulers initially resisted large-scale international aid (UNEP,
2009). The cyclone also caused significant coastal erosion and land loss moreso in the Irrawady
delta area. The southern coastal areas where the cyclone passed experienced rough seas, heavy
rains, strong winds, and ‘modest’ storm surges as the cyclone passed (UNEP, 2009).
The impacts of Cyclone Nargis were exacerbated by earlier environmental degradation
including deforestation and over-exploitation of fisheries and soil erosion. The heavy loss of life
that occurred during the storm surge was primarily due to earlier loss of more than 75% of the
original mangrove cover in the Delta (UNEP, 2009). The mangrove could have served as a
buffer against the storm surge but unfortunately, it had almost been depleted. This environmental
degradation reduced people’s resilience against the impacts the cyclone caused (UNEP, 2009).
Through the cyclone, various lessons were learnt concerning the environment. Natural resource
management interventions were implemented in the area and the community educated on
sustainability. This was in line to reduce the afterward impacts to protect the vulnerable
CNN.com. (2018). Hurricane Katrina Statistics Fast Facts. Retrieved
from https://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/23/us/hurricane-katrina-statistics-fastfacts/index.html
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2009). Learning from Cyclone Nargis:
Investing in the environment for livelihoods and disaster risk reduction. Retrieved
from https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/14116/myanmar_
Hi Mike,
Speaking from memory, I believe that the Army Corps of Engineers took the majority of
the blame for the failure of levees in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina. Also, from
memory and experience, there are mixed opinions on classifying Katrina as a natural
disaster or man-made disaster due to the state of the levees.
In a quick library search, I found an article that may serve to provide more information
that CNN would.
Wood, M., Kovacs, D., Bostrom, A., Bridges, T., & Linkov, I. (2012). Flood risk management: US army corps of
engineers and layperson perceptions. Risk Analysis, 32(8), 1349-1368. doi:10.1111/j.15396924.2012.01832.x
Speaking of hurricanes, I’d like to discuss similar situation which is the strike of hurricane
Maria On Wednesday September 20/2017 Puerto Rico got stricken by hurricane Maria that had a
great impact on the island which left the citizens into a desperate humanitarian crisis. Almost
50% of the population lived below the poverty line and the unemployment rate reached the
highest levels. Approximately 135,000 Puerto Ricans have left their homes and settled in the
continental. As a result of this tragedy 500,000 residents will leave the island by 2019 while the
rest of population are committed to restore the infrastructure no matter how long it takes. Even
though, they have defecated themselves for that purpose they still need support for essentials. A
year after the strike the recovery process still in progress although, the electrical energy has been
restored and accessing the clean water improved still some homes have tarps instead of roofs.
According to the department of homeland security the impact was substantial, a huge number of
people were affected. In order to help a large number of survivors, FEMA has worked with
different federal agencies: state, local, tribal, and territorial government; and also, nongovernmental origination (NGO) and the private sector to unify the efforts to meet the needs of
On September 19 just after the strike of hurricane Irma the eye of hurricane Maria passed just
south of the USVI to make a landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20. President Trump has
declared the need of disaster management interference. The federal government also started a
massive and united response and recovery potation. The number of federal staffs on the ground
were about 3,500. These include a national incident management team (NIMT). By September
29 there were more than 10,000 federal staff (including more than 800 FEMA personal). All
these people were working 24/7 with territorial and local officials to secure the situation. To date
FEMA has delivered a tremendous amount of food and water the people of Puerto Rico and the
USVI in support of disaster survivor. Not only but also FEMA helped to restore the power by
assigning the U.S army corps of engineers (USACE) to provide the power temporarily. USACE
installed over 1,900 emergency generators in Puerto Rico and 180 in USVI.
Schwartz, E. (2018, September 13). Quick facts: Hurricane Maria’s effect on Puerto Rico.
Retrieved from https://www.mercycorps.org/articles/united-states/quick-facts-hurricanemarias-effect-puerto-rico
Written testimony of FEMA for a House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight
and Investigations hearing titled “Update on the Restoration of Puerto Rico’s Electric
Infrastructure”. (2018, August 14). Retrieved
from https://www.dhs.gov/news/2018/04/11/written-testimony-fema-house-energy-andcommerce-subcommittee-oversight-and
I agree with you Dr. Parrillo that the preparedness and emergency response to the
hurricane Katrina of 2005 in New Orleans had significant challenges. The government
received much criticism from opposition leaders as well as the international community.
The main contributor to the poor response was the magnitude of the disaster. Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other government and humanitarian
organizations had underestimated the number of people affected by the hurricane. They
had projected that initial response of food and water for 1500 people would be enough but
that was not the case as thousands more became displaced and one thousand eight
hundred and thirty-three died. Political leaders were under pressure to perform which
resulted in what would be considered slow decision making based on the urgency of the
situation (Marable & Clarke, 2016). Indeed, poor communication further contributed to
poor response; humanitarian organizations could not agree on a common strategy, and
each did their own thing as separate independent groups.
Mayor Nagin who made critical decisions regarding the evacuation process received
much criticism. He failed to give an official warning until it was a day to the occurrence of
the hurricane. Additionally, transport was available in the form of school buses, but he
failed to give the go-ahead for their use in the evacuation process. As a result of his
decisions, thousands of residents were trapped trying to get out the state in the congested
roads. The response was also wanting in the treatment of foreign people visiting the states.
Some foreigners claimed that priority was given to American citizens and they were left
stranded. Federal and state government has taken deliberate steps to ensure that the same
thing is not repeated. Residents are given fair warning in case of a natural disaster threat,
and if it does occur, the local authorities are divided into groups to maintain order during
the response and to perform rescue efforts.
Marable, M., & Clarke, K. (Eds.). (2016). Seeking higher ground: the Hurricane Katrina
crisis, race, and public policy reader. Springer.
The effects of the storm were ubiquitous. According to Montano (2014), “The most significant
impacts occurred in areas that experienced not just the hurricane itself but also subsequent
flooding.” Many people evacuated and displaced for months or more. Moreover, as you
mentioned, one of the problems in Katrina was from a lack of communication with the
information management system which was inadequately implemented. When a disaster occurs,
the situation would be changed rapidly, and miscommunication is to be expected. The managers
need to acquire the information at the right time, and it would be critical to base all the decisions
on robust and reliable data. Therefore, the Katrina crisis strengthened the response system to a
significant disaster incident (Banipal, 2006).
Banipal, K. (2006). Strategic approach to disaster management: lessons learned from Hurricane
Katrina. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 15(3), 484-494
Montano, S. L. (2014). Formation and lifespans of emergent recovery groups in postkatrina new orleans Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text: The Humanities and
Social Sciences Collection
After the hurricane Katrina occurred, the Coastal Protection Restoration Authority (CPRA) was
created by the Louisiana state legislature. CPRA was helpful to develop strategies to assist
policymakers in improving a more sustainable coast (Edward B, 2015). However, Hurricane
Maria which struck Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017, is considered a humanitarian crisis. It
was the most significant storm that hits the island in the last 80 years. About 3.4 million citizens
live there. One hundred thirty-five thousand left the island after the hurricane. The island still
needs assistance and support to recover. We also may consider the weather change. As a result,
that hurricane might occur again in the next years (Emma, 2018). Puerto Rico’s planning board
estimated that impact of Hurricane Maria on the economy of Puerto Rico at $43 billion. The
population has curiously decreased after Maria Although the population number had
been declining over the last decade. The number went from 3.8 million to almost 3.3 among the
previous 15 years only. The question is how to prevent the population from persisting to
decline (Ortiz, 2018).
Policy: Hurricane Katrina’s lessons for the world.Barbier EB – Nature – August 20, 2015; 524
(7565); 285-7
Schwartz, Emma (2018, September 13). Quick facts: Hurricane Maria’s effect on Puerto Rico.
Retrieved from https://www.mercycorps.org/articles/united-states/quick-facts-hurricanemarias-effect-puerto-rico
Jorge L. Ortiz (2018, December 04).Hurricane Maria’s economic impact on Puerto Rico: At least
$43 billion, possibly as high as $159 billion

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