# HLT362V Grand Canyon Calculating T Tests for Independent Samples Paper Analyze the function of mean, median, and mode, and perform calculations. Analyze th

HLT362V Grand Canyon Calculating T Tests for Independent Samples Paper Analyze the function of mean, median, and mode, and perform calculations.

Analyze the function of range, standard deviation, and variance, and perform calculations

Requirements: two assignments, week 3, exercise 16-17 and week 3 exercise 31-32 (all multiple choice) Please indicate the multiple choice answer then the required written interpretation.

(exercise 31 and 32 both number 8 questions require a Written (your) interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal)

Aug 14th, 2017

ATTACHMENTS Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based

Practice, 2nd Edition

Exercise 16: Understanding Independent Samples t-test

Questions to Be Graded

1. What do degrees of freedom (df) mean?

A. It is a mathematical concept that describes the freedom of a particular score’s

value independent of the other existing scores’ values and the sum of the

scores.

B. It is a mathematical concept that describes the freedom of a particular score’s

value to vary on the other existing scores’ values and the sum of the scores.

Answer: Choose an item.

Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the dfs in their study. Why is it important to

know the df for a t ratio?

A. The df for t-tests allows us to look up t ratios on a statistical table that

includes a distribution of the critical values of t to determine the significance

of the t values obtained in a study.

B. The df for t-tests allows us to look up t ratios on a statistical table that

includes a distribution of the critical values of t to determine the sign

(positive or negative) of the t values obtained in a study.

Answer: Choose an item.

Using the df formula, calculate the df for this study.

A. 87

B. 88

C. 174

D. 176

Answer: Choose an item.

2. What are the means and standard deviations (SDs) for age for the Buzzy

intervention and control groups?

Mean±SD for the Buzzy experimental group and Mean±SD for the control group were:

A. 8.05±1.51; 8.31±1.69.

Copyright © 2017, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Questions to Be Graded

16-2

B. 8.15±1.51; 8.41±1.69.

C. 8.05±1.51; 8.51±1.69.

D. 8.25±1.51; 8.61±1.69.

Answer: Choose an item.

What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age

for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique? Provide a

rationale for your answer.

A. Independent sample t-test. Appropriate.

B. Independent sample t-test. Not appropriate.

C. Paired sample t-test. Appropriate.

D. Paired sample t-test. Not appropriate.

Answer: Choose an item.

3. What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

A. The t=-3.459 and p value=0.005. A significant difference in age between the two

treatment groups.

B. The t=-2.489 and p value=0.013. A significant difference in age between the two

treatment groups.

C. The t=-1.489 and p value=0.136. No significant difference in age between the two

treatment groups.

Answer: Choose an item.

4. What are the assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

A. The variable is normally distributed.

B. The dependent variable(s) is (are) measured at the interval or ratio levels.

C. The two groups have equal variance.

D. All observations within each group are independent

E. All of the above.

Answer: Choose an item.

5. Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your

answer.

A. The groups in this study are independent since the study participants were

randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group.

B. The groups in this study are not independent since the study participants were not

randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group.

Answer: Choose an item.

Copyright © 2017, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Questions to Be Graded

16-3

6. What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong

Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups?

A. There is no difference in procedural self-reported pain with the WBFS between the

Buzzy intervention and control groups of school age children.

B. There is a difference in procedural self-reported pain with the WBFS between the

Buzzy intervention and control groups of school age children.

Answer: Choose an item.

Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rationale for your

answer.

A. Accepted (or not rejected).

B. Rejected.

Answer: Choose an item.

7. Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for

your answer.

A. Yes, in order to control Type I error, because there were multiple t-tests performed.

B. No, because no multiple tests were performed.

Answer: Choose an item.

8. What variable has a result of t = −6.135, p = 0.000?

A. Procedural self-reported pain with WBFS

B. Procedural self-reported pain with VAS

C. Procedural anxiety level

Answer: Choose an item.

What does the result mean?

A. There is a significant difference between the two groups in the variable of interest.

B. There is no significant difference between the two groups in the variable of

interest.

Answer: Choose an item.

Copyright © 2017, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Questions to Be Graded

16-4

9. In your opinion, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2

were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. It would be expected

B. It would be unexpected

that if both WBFS and VAS are reliable and valid methods of measuring pain that

the results would be consistent and in this case statistically significant for both

measurement methods.

Answer: Choose an item.

10. Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy

intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

A. Decreased pain and anxiety levels.

B. Nonpharmacological

C. fast-acting, inexpensive, and easy to use

D. A & B

E. A & B & C

Answer: Choose an item.

Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based

Practice, 2nd Edition

Exercise 17: Understanding Paired or Dependent Samples t-test

1. What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a

study?

A. The distribution of scores is normal or approximately normal

B. The dependent variable is measured at interval or ratio levels

C. Repeated measures from one group of subjects where they serve as their own

control

D. The differences between the paired scores are independent

E. The repeated measures for one subject are independent

F. A to D

G. A to E

Answer: Choose an item.

Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the Lindseth et al. (2014) study?

A. A to D in the previous sub-question.

B. A to E in in the previous sub-question.

Answer: Choose an item.

Copyright © 2017, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Questions to Be Graded

16-5

2. In the introduction, Lindseth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between

diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

A. A period to clear their bodies of the level of aspartame consumed over the

previous 8 days. It is important because the effects of the first invention can be

reduced or removed so that they do not affect the outcome of the second

intervention.

B. A period to wait for the effect of aspartame consumed over the previous 8 days. It

is important because the effects of the first invention can be considered and

evaluated again for the second intervention.

Answer: Choose an item.

3. What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’

consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically

significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A. 3.2. Significant, because p

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