Internet of Things Summary I need 8-10 or more pages or more if needed summary of the attached papers and chapter in my capstone project with topic ((IoT s

Internet of Things Summary I need 8-10 or more pages or more if needed summary of the attached papers and chapter in my capstone project with topic ((IoT security and machine learning)). It will be a start and if the supervisor accept it we will go further with project together up to the end. If possible to help me find the research gap and how the project work contributes towards the advancement of human knowledge. According to the book I attached only chapter 14 needed. APA style. Texts in Computer Science
Joseph Migga Kizza
Ethical and Social
Issues in the
Information Age
Sixth Edition
Texts in Computer Science
Series editors
David Gries, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Orit Hazzan, Technion—Israel Institute of Technolog, Haifa, Israel
Fred B. Schneider, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
More information about this series at
Joseph Migga Kizza
Ethical and Social Issues
in the Information Age
Sixth Edition
Joseph Migga Kizza
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Chattanooga, TN
ISSN 1868-0941
ISSN 1868-095X (electronic)
Texts in Computer Science
ISBN 978-3-319-70711-2
ISBN 978-3-319-70712-9 (eBook)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017957974
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017
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Preface to the Sixth Edition
In the fifth edition of this book, I made the following statement as an opener to the
Preface of that edition “We may have experienced the fastest growth of technology
in the last ten years than ever before.” I am going to make the same but bolder
statement in this sixth edition because literally nothing has changed to prove
otherwise. We may have experienced the fastest growth of technology in the last
ten years than ever before. Technology has grown even faster and more
enchanting and perplexing since the writing of that statement. Amazing and
complex new technological advances have been registered across the broad spectrum of computing and telecommunication with jaw-dropping developments in
networking and internet connectivity creating new the long expected convergence
that is leading into new communications and computing platforms that are reaching
into all remote corners of the world, bringing big and small, house and automobile
devices to talk to each other and covering more of the poor and less affluent and
bringing them to a position on a par with the rich and powerful than ever before.
Along the way, these new technological developments have created new communities and ecosystems that are themselves evolving, in flux and difficult to secure
and with questionable, if not evolving ethical systems that will take us time to learn,
if it remains constant at all. Because of these rapid and unpredictable changes, my
readers across the world have been contacting me to revise the contents of the book
that has so far stood the currents now for 22 years. The frequency of new editions of
this book is a testimony to these rapid and tremendous technological changes in the
fields of computer and telecommunication sciences. First published in 1995, the
book has rapidly gone through five editions already and now we are in the sixth.
During that time, we have become more dependent on computer and telecommunication technology than ever before, and computer technology has become ubiquitous as the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are blanketing the world we live
in. Since I started writing on social computing, I have been advocating a time when
we, as individuals and as nations, will become totally dependent on computing
technology. That time is almost on us. Evidence of this is embodied in the rapid
convergence of telecommunication, broadcasting, computing and mobile devices,
the miniaturization of these devices, the ever increasing storage capacity, speed of
Preface to the Sixth Edition
computation, and ease of use. These qualities have been a big pulling force sucking
in millions of new users every day, sometimes even those unwilling. Other
appealing features of these devices are increasing number of applications, apps, as
they are increasingly becoming known, and their being wireless and easily portable.
Whether small or big, these new gizmos have become a centerpiece of an individual’s social and economic activities and the main access point for all information. Individuals aside, computing technology has also become the engine that
drives the nations’ strategic and security infrastructures that control power grids,
gas and oil storage facilities, transportation, and all forms of national communication, including emergency services. These developments have elevated cyberspace to be the most crucial economic and security domains of nations. The US
government, and indeed other national governments, has classified cyberspace
security and cyber threat as one of the most serious economic and national security
challenges the USA is facing as a nation.1 This, in particular, classifies the country’s
computer networks as national security priority. What led to this has been a consistent and growing problem of cyber threats. In his article, “New Security Flaws
Detected in Mobile Devices”, Byron Acohido,2 reports on two research reports by
Cryptography Research. In one study, Cryptography Research showed how it is
possible to eavesdrop on any smartphone or tablet as it is being used to make a
purchase, conduct online banking, or access a company’s virtual private network.
Also, McAfee, an anti-virus software company and a division of Intel, showed ways
to remotely hack into Apple iOS and steal secret keys and passwords, and pilfer
sensitive data, including call histories, e-mail, and text messages. What is more
worrying is the reported fact that the device under attack would not in any way
show that an attack is underway. Almost every mobile system user, security
experts, and law enforcement officials are all anticipating, and as recent attack
events have shown, that cybergangs will accelerate attacks as consumers and
companies begin to rely more heavily on mobile devices for shopping, banking, and
working. To make this even more complicated is the growing geographical sources
of such cybergangs, now spanning the whole globe with patches of geopolitical
laws, in reality unenforceable. So there is an urgent need for a broader array of
security awareness, at a global scale, of communities and actions by these communities to assist in providing all users the highest level of protection.
In April 2009, the US government admitted, after reports, that the nation’s power
grid is vulnerable to cyber attack, following reports that it has been infiltrated by
foreign spies. According to reports, there is a pretty strong consensus in the security
community that the SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), an
industrial control system that is used to monitor and control industrial, infrastructure or facility-based processes, and similar critical control platforms and systems
“US ‘concerned’ over cyber threat”.
Byron Acohido, “ New Security Flaws Detected in Mobile Devices”.,
April 10, 2012.
Preface to the Sixth Edition
are not keeping pace with the rapid growing cyber attack pace and rapid changes in
The rising trend in cyber attacks, many of them with lightning speed, affecting
millions of computing and mobile devices worldwide and in the process causing
billions of dollars in losses to individuals and businesses, may be an indication of
how unprepared we are to handle such attacks not only now but also in the future. It
may also be a mark of the poor state of our cyber security posture, policies, and the
lack of will to implement these policies and develop protocols and build facilities
that will diminish the effects of these menacing activities if not eliminating them all
It is encouraging though to hear and indeed see that at long last governments and
private enterprise around the globe have started to act. There is a growing realization that the next big war may probably be fought in cyberspace. One hopes,
though, that as governments prepare defensive stances, that they also take steps to
protect the individual citizens.
As we look for such protective and defensive strategies, the technological race is
picking up speed with new technologies that make our efforts and existing technologies on which these strategies have been based obsolete in shorter and shorter
periods. All these illustrate the speed at which the computing and telecommunication environments are changing and demonstrate a need for continuous review of
our defensive strategies and more importantly a need for a strong ethical framework
in our computer, information, and engineering science education. This has been and
continues to be the focus of this book and remains so in this edition.
What is New in this Edition
There has been considerable changes in the contents of the book to bring it in line
with the new developments we discussed above. In almost every chapter, new
content has been added and we have eliminated what looked as outdated and what
seems to be repeated materials. Because of the bedrock moral values and the
enduring core ethical values of our community, the content in some chapters had
not changed since the first edition. Because the popularity of Issues for Discussion,
a series of thought-provoking questions and statements, meant to make the reading
of chapters more interactive, this series has been kept in this edition. But of more
interest to our readers and in recognition of the rapidly changing computing and
telecommunication ecosystem, two new chapters on Cyberbullying and the Internet
of Things (IoT) have been added. The addition of these chapters has been driven by
technology advances that have seen an almost ubiquitous use of internet-ready
mobile devices making cyberspace access easy and yet still anonymous thus creating fertile ground for abuse. Quick advances in technology have also made the
appearance of new and increasingly minutiae smart devices in homes and cars that
are everywhere that can self-organize and connect to the internet creating a new
internet interface whose proposals and policies are either incompatible with the
Preface to the Sixth Edition
current internet protocols, policies, and standards or yet to be defined, debated, and
accepted. This state of the newly defined internet interface is, in its present form, a
security quagmire. The discussion throughout the book is candid and intended to
ignite students interest, participation in class discussions of the issues and beyond.
Chapter Overview
The book is divided into eighteen chapters as follows:
Chapter 1—History of Computing gives an overview of the history of computing science in hardware, software, and networking, covering prehistoric (prior to
1946) computing devices and computing pioneers since the Abacus. It also discusses the development of computer crimes and the current social and ethical
environment. Further, computer ethics is defined, and a need to study computer
ethics is emphasized.
Chapter 2—Morality and the Law defines and examines personal and public
morality, identifying assumptions and value the law, looking at both conventional
and natural law, and the intertwining of morality and the law. It, together with
Chap. 3, gives the reader the philosophical framework needed for the remainder
of the book.
Chapter 3—Ethics and Ethical Analysis builds upon Chap. 2 in setting up the
philosophical framework and analysis tools for the book discussing moral theories
and problems in ethical relativism. Based on these and in light of the rapid advances
in technology, the chapter discusses the moral and ethical premises and their corresponding values in the changing technology arena.
Chapter 4—Ethics and the Professions examines the changing nature of the
professions and how they cope with the impact of technology on their fields. An
ethical framework for decision making is developed. Professional and ethical
responsibilities based on community values and the law are also discussed. And
social issues including harassment and discrimination are thoroughly covered.
Chapter 5—Anonymity, Security, and Privacy and Civil Liberties surveys the
traditional ethical issues of privacy, security, and anonymity and analyzes how
these issues are affected by computer technology. Information gathering, databasing, and civil liberties are also discussed.
Chapter 6—Intellectual Property Rights and Computer Technology discusses the foundations of intellectual property rights and how computer technology
has influenced and changed the traditional issues of property rights, in particular
intellectual property rights.
Chapter 7—Social Context of Computing considers the three main social issues
in computing, namely the digital divide, workplace issues like employee monitoring, and health risks, and how these issues are changing with the changing
computer technology.
Preface to the Sixth Edition
Chapter 8—Software Issues: Risks and Liabilities revisits property rights,
responsibility and accountability with a focus on computer software. The risks and
liabilities associated with software and risk assessment are also / discussed.
Chapters 9—Computer Crimes surveys the history and examples of computer
crimes, their types, costs on society, and strategies of detection and prevention.
Chapter 10—New Frontiers for Computer Ethics: Artificial Intelligence
discusses the new frontiers of ethics in the new intelligent technologies and how
these new frontiers are affecting the traditional ethical and social issues.
Chapter 11—New Frontiers for Computer Ethics: Virtualization and Virtual
Reality discusses the new developments and consequences of the virtualization
technology and its implications on our participation and how the technology
informs our behavior based on our traditional moral and ethical values.
Chapter 12—New Frontiers for Computer Ethics: Cyberspace discusses the
new frontiers of ethics in cyberspace and the Internet, and how these new frontiers
are affecting the traditional ethical and social issues.
Chapter 13—Cyberbullying (New) discusses the growing threat and effects
repeated deliberate harm or harassment other people by using electronic technology
that may include devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets
as well as communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat,
and Web sites.
Chapter 14—New Frontiers for Computer Ethics: Internet of Things
(IoT) (New) discusses the new frontiers of ethics in the new and developing
Internet-user interface whose protocols, policies, and standards are yet to be
defined, discussed, and accepted by the scientific and user community. We will
explore how this new interface has created a security quagmire and how it is
affecting our traditional ethical and social systems.
Chapter 15—Ethical, Privacy, and Security Issues in the Online Social
Network EcoSystem discusses the new realities of global computer social network
ecosystems, global linguistic, cultural, moral and ethical dynamisms and their
impact on our traditional and cherished moral and ethical systems.
Chapter 16—Ethical, Privacy, and Security Issues in the Mobile Ecosystems
begins by presenting rather a frightening and quickly evolving mobile telecommunication and computing technologies, their unprecedented global reach and
inclusion, unparalleled social, financial and cultural prowess, and the yet to be
defined social, moral, and ethical value systems.
Chapter 17—Computer Crime Investigations and Ethics discusses what
constitutes digital evidence, the collection and analysis of digital evidence, chain of
custody, the writing of the report, and the possible appearance in court as an expert
witness. Ethical implications of these processes, the role of the legal framework,
and the absence of an ethical framework are discussed in depth.
Chapter 18—Biometrics Technologies and Ethics starts by discussing the
different techniques in access control. Biometric technologies and techniques are
then introduced to be contrasted with the other known techniques. Several biometrics and biometric technologies and their ethical implications are discussed.
Preface to the Sixth Edition
This book satisfies the new following curricula standards (
Computer Engineering
• CE2016: Computer Engineering Curricula 2016 (English)
Computer Science
• CS2013: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Programs in Computer
Science (English)
Information Systems
• IS2010 Curriculum Update: The Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate
Degree Programs in Information Systems is complete and approved.
Information Technology
• IT 2008: The Computing Curricula Information Technology Volume is complete and approved.
Software Engineering
• SE2014: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Software Engineering
Associate-Degree Computing Curricula

Associate-Degree Computing Curricula
Information Technology Competency Model
Computer Science Transfer
Computer Engineering Transfer
Software Engineering Transfer
Kindergarten through 12th Grade
CSTA K-12 CS Standards, 2011 Edition
These curricula focus on the need for any computer-related undergraduate programs
to understand the basic cultural, social, legal, and ethical issues inherent in the
disciplines of computing sciences. To do this, they need to:
• understand where the discipline has been, where it is, and where it is heading.
• understand their individual roles in this process, as well as appreciate the
philosophical questions, technical problems, and esthetic values that play an
important part in the development of the discipline.
• develop the ability to ask serious questions about the social impact of computing
and to evaluate proposed answers to those questions.
Preface to the Sixth Edition
• be aware of the basic legal rights of software and hardware vendors and users,
and they also need to appreciate the ethical values that are the basis for those
Students in related disciplines like computer information and information
management systems, and library sciences will also find this book informative.
The book is also good for Computing Sciences practitioners who must practice
the principles embedded in those curricula based on understanding:
• that the responsibility that they bear and the possible consequences of failure.
• their own limitations as well as the limitations of their tools.
The book is also good for anyone interested in knowing how ethical and social
issues like privacy, civil liberties, security, anony…
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