STP 226 Statistics problems hello i want someone to help me with my homework , i will attached a picture of it thank you . A Gift of Fire Social, Legal, an

STP 226 Statistics problems hello i want someone to help me with my homework , i will attached a picture of it thank you . A Gift of Fire
Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing Technology
Fifth Edition
Sara Baase
San Diego State University
Timothy M. Henry
New England Institute of Technology
330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Baase, Sara, author. | Henry, Timothy M., author.
Title: A gift of fire : social, legal, and ethical issues for computing technology / Sara Baase, San Diego
State University, Timothy M. Henry.
Description: Fifth edition. | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016058670| ISBN 9780134615271 (alk. paper) | ISBN 0134615271 (alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Computers—Social aspects. | Computers—Moral and ethical aspects. | Computers—
Legal and Constitutional aspects. | Internet—Social aspects. | Internet—Moral and ethical aspects. |
Internet—Legal and Constitutional aspects.
Classification: LCC QA76.9.C66 B3 2018 | DDC 303.48/34—dc23 LC record available at https://
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-461527-1
To Keith, now and always
S. B.
To Tita, for her unconditional support
T. M. H.
Title Page
Preface xiii
1 Unwrapping the Gift 1
1.1 The Pace of Change 2
1.2 Change and Unexpected Developments 5
1.2.1 Self-Driving Vehicles 5
1.2.2 Connections: Mobile Phones, Social Networking, and the Internet of Things 8
1.2.3 E-commerce and Free Stuff 17
1.2.4 Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Sensors, and Motion 20
1.2.5 Tools for Disabled People 24
1.3 Themes 26
1.4 Ethics 30
1.4.1 What is Ethics, Anyway? 30
1.4.2 A Variety of Ethical Views 32
1.4.3 Some Important Distinctions 40
Exercises 43
2 Privacy 51
2.1 Privacy Risks and Principles 52
2.1.1 What Is Privacy? 52
2.1.2 New Technology, New Risks 54
2.1.3 Terminology and Principles for Managing Personal Data 59
2.2 The Business and Social Sectors 63
2.2.1 Marketing and Personalization 63
2.2.2 Our Social and Personal Activity 67
2.2.3 Location Tracking 71
2.2.4 A Right to Be Forgotten 74
2.3 The Fourth Amendment and Changing Technology 77
2.3.1 The Fourth Amendment 77
2.3.2 Background, Law, and Court Decisions 78
2.3.3 Applying the Fourth Amendment in New Areas 81
2.4 Government Systems 86
2.4.1 Video Surveillance and Face Recognition 86
2.4.2 Databases 88
2.4.3 Public Records: Access versus Privacy 92
2.4.4 National ID Systems 94
2.4.5 The NSA and Secret Intelligence Gathering 99
2.5 Protecting Privacy: Technology and Markets 101
2.5.1 Developing Privacy Tools 101
2.5.2 Encryption 102
2.5.3 Blocking Ads 104
2.5.4 Policies for Protecting Personal Data 107
2.6 Protecting Privacy: Theory, Rights, and Laws 108
2.6.1 A Right to Privacy 109
2.6.2 Law and Regulation 114
2.6.3 Contrasting Viewpoints 116
2.7 Privacy Regulations in the European Union 120
Exercises 123
3 Freedom of Speech 137
3.1 The First Amendment and Communications Paradigms 138
3.1.1 Free Speech Principles 138
3.1.2 Regulating Communications Media 140
3.2 Controlling Speech in Cyberspace 143
3.2.1 What Is Offensive Speech? What Is Illegal? 143
3.2.2 Censorship Laws and Alternatives 145
3.2.3 Child Pornography and Sexting 151
3.2.4 Spam 154
3.2.5 Challenging Old Regulatory Structures and Special Interests 157
3.3 Decisions about Legal but Objectionable Content 159
3.4 Leaking Sensitive Material 163
3.5 Anonymity 168
3.6 The Global Net: Censorship and Political Freedom 171
3.6.1 Tools for Communication, Tools for Oppression 171
3.6.2 Aiding Foreign Censors and Repressive Regimes 175
3.6.3 Shutting Down Communications in Free Countries 177
3.7 Net Neutrality: Regulations or the Market? 178
Exercises 182
4 Intellectual Property 193
4.1 Principles and Laws 194
4.1.1 What Is Intellectual Property? 194
4.1.2 Challenges of New Technologies 196
4.1.3 A Bit of History 199
4.1.4 The Fair Use Doctrine 200
4.1.5 Ethical Arguments About Copying 201
4.2 Significant Fair Use Cases and Precedents 205
4.2.1 Sony v. Universal City Studios (1984) 205
4.2.2 Reverse Engineering: Game Machines 206
4.2.3 Sharing Music: The Napster and Grokster Cases 206
4.2.4 User and Programmer Interfaces 210
4.3 Responses to Copyright Infringement 211
4.3.1 Defensive and Aggressive Responses from the Content Industries 211
4.3.2 The Digital Millennium Copyright Act: Anticircumvention 216
4.3.3 The Digital Millennium Copyright Act: Safe Harbor 219
4.3.4 Evolving Business Models 221
4.4 Search Engines and Online Libraries 224
4.5 Free Software 227
4.5.1 What Is Free Software? 227
4.5.2 Should All Software Be Free? 229
4.6 Patents for Software Inventions 230
4.6.1 Patent Trends, Confusion, and Controversies 230
4.6.2 To Patent or Not? 234
Exercises 236
5 Crime and Security 247
5.1 Introduction 248
5.2 What is Hacking? 249
5.2.1 The Evolution of Hacking 249
5.2.2 Hacker Tools 253
5.2.3 Is “Harmless” Hacking Harmless? 256
5.3 Some Specific Applications of Hacking 257
5.3.1 Identity Theft 257
5.3.2 Case Study: The Target Breach 259
5.3.3 Hacktivism, or Political Hacking 261
5.3.4 Hacking by Governments 263
5.4 Why Is the Digital World So Vulnerable? 265
5.4.1 Vulnerability of Operating Systems and the Internet 265
5.4.2 Human Nature, Markets, and Vulnerability of the Internet of Things 268
5.5 Security 271
5.5.1 Tools to Help Protect the Digital World 271
5.5.2 People Who Can Help Protect the Digital World 280
5.5.3 Hacking to Improve Security 284
5.5.4 Backdoors for Law Enforcement 286
5.6 The Law 289
5.6.1 The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 289
5.6.2 Criminalize Virus Writing and Hacker Tools? 291
5.6.3 Penalties for Young Hackers 292
5.7 Whose Laws Rule the Web? 294
5.7.1 A Crime in One Country but Not Another 294
5.7.2 Libel and Freedom of Speech 297
5.7.3 Culture, Law, and Ethics 299
5.7.4 Potential Solutions 300
Exercises 302
6 Work 311
6.1 Fears and Questions 312
6.2 Impacts on Employment 313
6.2.1 Job Destruction and Creation 313
6.2.2 Changing Skills and Skill Levels 318
6.2.3 Are We Earning Less and Working More? 321
6.3 Changing Work Patterns: From Telecommuting to Gigs 322
6.3.1 Telecommuting 322
6.3.2 The Sharing Economy, On-Demand Services, and Gig Work 325
6.4 A Global Workforce 331
6.5 Employee Communication and Monitoring by Employers 337
6.5.1 Social Media Content 337
6.5.2 Separating—or Merging—Work and Personal Systems 341
6.5.3 Monitoring Employer Systems and Tracking Employees 342
Exercises 346
7 Evaluating and Controlling Technology 355
7.1 Evaluating Information 356
7.1.1 The Need for Responsible Judgment 356
7.1.2 Computer Models 365
7.2 Neo-Luddite Views of Computers, Technology, and Quality of Life 375
7.2.1 Criticisms of Computing Technologies 376
7.2.2 Views of Economics, Nature, and Human Needs 378
7.3 Digital Divides 385
7.3.1 Trends in Access in the United States 385
7.3.2 Reaching the Next Billion Users 387
7.4 Control of Our Devices and Data 391
7.4.1 Remote Deletion of Software and Data 391
7.4.2 Automatic Software Upgrades 392
7.5 Making Decisions About Technology 393
7.5.1 Questions 393
7.5.2 The Difficulty of Prediction 394
7.5.3 Intelligent Machines and Superintelligent Humans—Or the End of the Human Race?
7.5.4 A Few Observations 401
Exercises 401
8 Errors, Failures, and Risks 413
8.1 Failures and Errors in Computer Systems 414
8.1.1 An Overview 414
8.1.2 Problems for Individuals 416
8.1.3 System Failures 421
8.1.4 Example: Stalled Airports at Denver, Hong Kong, and Malaysia 426
8.1.5 Example: 428
8.1.6 What Goes Wrong? 431
8.2 Case Study: The Therac-25 434
8.2.1 Therac-25 Radiation Overdoses 434
8.2.2 Software and Design Problems 435
8.2.3 Why So Many Incidents? 437
8.2.4 Observations and Perspective 438
8.3 Increasing Reliability and Safety 439
8.3.1 Professional Techniques 439
8.3.2 Trust the Human or the Computer System? 447
8.3.3 Law, Regulation, and Markets 448
8.4 Dependence, Risk, and Progress 452
8.4.1 Are We Too Dependent on Computers? 452
8.4.2 Risk and Progress 453
Exercises 456
9 Professional Ethics and Responsibilities 465
9.1 What Are “Professional Ethics”? 466
9.2 Ethical Guidelines for Computer Professionals 467
9.2.1 Special Aspects of Professional Ethics 467
9.2.2 Professional Codes of Ethics 469
9.2.3 Guidelines and Professional Responsibilities 470
9.3 Scenarios 473
9.3.1 Introduction and Methodology 473
9.3.2 Protecting Personal Data 475
9.3.3 Designing an Application with Targeted Ads 477
9.3.4 Webcams in School Laptops 479
9.3.5 Publishing Security Vulnerabilities 480
9.3.6 Specifications 481
9.3.7 Schedule Pressures 482
9.3.8 Software License Violation 486
9.3.9 Going Public with Safety Concerns 486
9.3.10 Release of Personal Information 488
9.3.11 Conflict of Interest 490
9.3.12 Kickbacks and Disclosure 491
9.3.13 A Test Plan 492
9.3.14 Artificial Intelligence and Sentencing Criminals 493
9.3.15 A Gracious Host 495
Exercises 496
Epilogue 503
A The Software Engineering Code and the ACM Code 505
A.1 Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice 505
A.2 ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct 513
Index 521
This book has two intended audiences: students preparing for careers in computer science (and related
fields) and students in other fields who want to learn about issues that arise from digital technology, the
Internet, and other aspects of cyberspace. The book has no technical prerequisites. Instructors can use
it at various levels, in both introductory and advanced courses about computing or technology.
Scope of This Book
Many universities offer courses with titles such as “Ethical Issues in Computing” or “Computers and
Society.” Some focus primarily on professional ethics for computer professionals. Others address a wide
range of social issues. The bulky subtitle and the table of contents of this book indicate its scope. We
also include historical background to put some of today’s issues in context and perspective.
Students (in computer and information technology majors and in other majors) will face a wide variety of
issues in this book as members of a complex technological society, in both their professional and
personal lives. We believe it is important for students to see and understand the implications and
impacts of the technology.
The last chapter focuses on ethical issues for computer professionals. The basic ethical principles are
not different from ethical principles in other professions or other aspects of life: honesty, responsibility,
and fairness. However, within any one profession, special kinds of problems arise. Thus, we discuss
professional ethical guidelines and case scenarios specific to computing professions and we include two
of the main codes of ethics and professional practices for computer professionals in an Appendix. We
placed the professional ethics chapter last because we believe students will find it more interesting and
useful after they have as background the incidents, issues, and controversies in the earlier chapters.
Each of the chapters in this book could easily be expanded to a whole book. We had to leave out many
interesting topics and examples, so we placed some of these topics in exercises and hope these will
spark further reading and debate.
Changes for the Fifth Edition
For this fifth edition, we updated the whole book, removed outdated material, added many new topics
and examples, and reorganized several topics. New material appears throughout. We mention here
some major changes, completely new sections and topics, and some that we extensively revised.
This edition has more than 75 new exercises.
Chapter 1
has a new section on self-driving cars (a topic that appears again in later chapters). In
this chapter, we introduce the Internet of Things, another topic that reappears in later chapters.
New, expanded, or extensively revised topics in Chapter 2
include implanting tracking chips in
people, national ID systems, extensive government surveillance programs made public by leaked
NSA documents, new surveillance technologies, blocking online ads and ethical controversies about
doing so, and the European Union’s “right to be forgotten.” We reorganized Section 2.3
added more Fourth Amendment issues and significant court decisions about searching cellphones
and tracking people by tracking their phones.
In Chapter 3 , we expanded the section on how companies handle objectionable content, added
recent controversial examples of leaks of sensitive material, and expanded the discussion of net
In Chapter 4 , we expanded discussion of exemptions to the DMCA, added copyright cases in
several countries related to news excerpts, added the court decision and arguments in the lawsuit
against Google for copying millions of books, and updated and added several patent cases.
We extensively reorganized and updated Chapter 5 . We added a case study (the Target breach).
Other new sections cover hacking methods and why the digital world, including the Internet of
Things, is so vulnerable. The new section on security includes, among other topics, what
cybersecurity professionals do, responsible disclosure of vulnerabilities, the role of users in security,
and the controversies over impenetrable encryption and backdoors for law enforcement. The chapter
has many new examples throughout.
Chapter 6
has a large new section on the sharing economy and gig work.
Chapter 7
has new sections on hurdles to expanding Internet access in poor and developing
countries and on various issues about control of our devices and data. We added new examples and
more discussion of biased and distorted information in cyberspace.
In Chapter 8
, we updated the section on voting systems, added a section with a new case study
(the website), added issues about software controls in cars, and added a
discussion of the accidental bombing of a Doctors Without Borders hospital.
In Chapter 9
, we added a discussion of the Volkswagen “defeat device” scandal and updated the
This is an extremely fast-changing field. Clearly, some issues and examples in this book are so current
that details will change before or soon after publication. We do not consider this to be a serious problem
as specific examples illustrate the underlying issues and arguments. We encourage students to bring in
current news reports about relevant issues to discuss in class. Finding so many ties between the course
and current events adds to their interest in the class.
This book presents controversies and alternative points of view: privacy vs. access to information,
privacy vs. law enforcement, freedom of speech vs. control of content on the Net, pros and cons of
offshoring jobs, market-based vs. regulatory solutions, and so on. Often the discussion in the book
necessarily includes political, economic, social, and philosophical issues. We encourage students to
explore the arguments on all sides and to be able to explain why they reject the ones they reject before
they take a position. We believe this approach prepares them to tackle new controversies. They can
figure out the consequences of various proposals, generate arguments for each side, and evaluate
them. We encourage students to think in principles, rather than case by case, or at least to recognize
similar principles in different cases, even if they choose to take different positions on them.
Our Points of View
Any writer on subjects such as those in this book has some personal opinions, positions, or biases. We
believe strongly in the principles in the Bill of Rights. We also have a generally positive view of
technology. Don Norman, a psychologist and technology enthusiast who writes on humanizing
technology, observed that most people who have written books about technology “are opposed to it and
write about how horrible it is.”* We are not among those people. We think that technology, in general,
has been a major factor in bringing physical well-being, liberty, and opportunity to billions of people. That
does not mean technology is without problems. Most of this book focuses on problems. We must
recognize and study them so that we can reduce the negative effects and increase the positive ones.
*Quoted in Jeannette DeWyze, “When You Don’t Know How to Turn on Your Radio, Don Norman Is On Your Side,”
The San Diego Reader, Dec. 1, 1994, p. 1.
For many topics, this book takes a problem-solving approach. We usually begin with a description of
what is happening in a particular area, often including a little history. Next comes a discussion of why
there are concerns and what the new problems are. Finally, we give some commentary or perspective
and some current and potential solutions to the problems. Some people view problems and negative
side effects of new technologies as indications of inherent badness in the technology. We see them as
part of a natural process of change and development. You will see many examples of human ingenuity,
some that create problems and some that solve them. Often solutions come from improved or new
applications of technology.
At a workshop on Ethical and Professional Issues in Computing sponsored by the National Science
Foundation, Keith Miller, one of the speakers, gave the following outline for discussing ethical issues
(which he credited to a nun who had been one of his teachers, years ago): “What? So what? Now
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