Vulnerabilities of the Airport Identify the most salient vulnerabilities associated with key assets within sectors. Please choose one sector and one asset

Vulnerabilities of the Airport Identify the most salient vulnerabilities associated with key assets within sectors. Please choose one sector and one asset associated with the chosen sectorthe sector is Transportation Systems the asset should be airport 600 words, APA style.… 8/22/2017
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
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A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of RightWing Terrorism in the United States
Read ADL’s comprehensive report, A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of RightWing Terrorism in the United States (PDF).
In March 2017, a white supremacist from Maryland, James Harris Jackson, traveled
to New York City with the alleged intention of launching a series of violent attacks
on black men to discourage white women from having relationships with black
men. After several days, Jackson chose his first victim, a 66-year old black homeless
man, Timothy Caughman. Jackson later allegedly admitted that he had stabbed
Caughman with a small sword he had brought with him, describing the murder as a
“practice run.”
However, after the killing, Jackson’s angry energy dissipated and he turned himself
over to the authorities. A week later, New York prosecutors announced that they
were charging him with second-degree murder as a hate crime and also with a state
charge of terrorism.
Jackson’s aborted killing spree was a shocking example of right-wing terror in the
United States but it was unfortunately far from an isolated example.
For over a century and a half, since “burning Kansas” of the 1850s and the Ku Klux
Klan of the 1860s, right-wing terrorism has been an unwelcome feature of the
American landscape. Yet today, many people are barely aware that it exists and most
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
people don’t recognize its frequency or scope.
Far more attention in recent years has been given to the threat of homegrown
radical Islamic terror—a danger that has generated such horrific acts as the Orlando
and San Bernardino shooting sprees. Yet the very real specter of radical Islamic
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
terror in the United States has existed alongside an equally serious threat of terror
from right-wing extremist groups and individuals.
Both movements have generated shooting sprees, bombings, and a wide variety of
plots and conspiracies. Both pose threats so significant that to ignore either would
be to invite tragedy.
To illustrate the threat of right-wing terrorism in the United States, the AntiDefamation League’s Center on Extremism has compiled a list of 150 right-wing
terrorist acts, attempted acts, plots and conspiracies from the past 25 years (19932017). These include terrorist incidents from a wide variety of white supremacists,
from neo-Nazis to Klansmen to racist skinheads, as well as incidents connected to
anti-government extremists such as militia groups, sovereign citizens and tax
protesters. The list also includes incidents of anti-abortion terror as well as from
other, smaller right-wing extremist movements.
ADL’s Center on Extremism defines terrorism as a pre-planned act or attempted act of
significant violence by one or more non-state actors in order to further an
ideological, social or religious cause, or to harm perceived opponents of such
causes. Significant violent acts can include bombings or use of other weapons of
mass destruction, assassinations and targeted killings, shooting sprees, arsons and
firebombings, kidnappings and hostage situations and, in some cases, armed
robberies. Domestic terrorism consists of acts or attempted acts of terrorism in which
the perpetrators are citizens or permanent residents of the country in which the act
takes place.
The right-wing terrorist incidents in ADL’s list include those that best fit the above
criteria. They are drawn from the much larger pool of violent and criminal acts that
American right-wing extremists engage in every year, from hate crimes to deadly
encounters with law enforcement. Right-wing extremists annually murder a
number of Americans, but only some of those murders occur in connection with
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
terrorist acts. There are, after all, hundreds of thousands of adherents of right-wing
extremist movements in the United States and all such movements have some
degree of association with criminal activity. No one should think, therefore, that the
incidents listed here represent the breadth of right-wing violence in the U.S. But, as
acts of terrorism, they do show right-wing movements at their most vicious and
The Perpetrators
The people who committed or attempted the terrorist acts listed here came from a
variety of right-wing extremist movements. In a few cases, extremists connected to
terror incidents here even adhered to more than one right-wing extremist
movement; in such cases, the seemingly dominant ideology was selected for
statistical purposes. Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, for example, was
primarily an anti-government extremist but also had white supremacist leanings.
Richard Poplawski, who gunned down three police officers in Pittsburgh, was a
white supremacist who also had leanings towards the anti-government movement.
Most right-wing extremists in the United States fall into one of two broad umbrella
movements or spheres: white supremacists and anti-government extremists. An
overwhelming majority of the terror incidents listed here (85%) were committed by
adherents of one of these two spheres. Moreover, the number of acts attributed to
each sphere is almost identical: 64 terror incidents are related to white
supremacists, while 63 are related to anti-government extremists. Many people,
when picturing right-wing terrorism, tend to think of white supremacists, but antigovernment extremists such as militia groups and sovereign citizens pose just as
much of a threat.
White supremacists involved in right-wing terror incidents include adherents of
every major segment of the white supremacist movement, including neo-Nazis,
racist skinheads, “traditional” white supremacists (such as Ku Klux Klan groups),
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
white supremacist prison gangs, the religious sect Christian Identity, and the Alt
Right. Leaving aside dual-movement extremists such as Timothy McVeigh, the
worst white supremacist terrorist was Dylann Roof, a “traditional” white
supremacist who embarked upon a deadly shooting spree at the Emanuel AME
church in Charleston, South Carolina, in 2015, killing nine.
The anti-government extremists, who are often collectively termed the “Patriot”
movement, consist primarily of adherents of the tax protest movement, the
sovereign citizen movement, and the militia movement (with the latter including
Oath Keepers and Three Percenters). Though the “Patriot” movement goes back to
the mid-1960s, it was in the mid-1990s that it really came into its own in terms of
becoming a major domestic terrorist threat, one that equaled the threat posed by
white supremacists. Oklahoma City bombers Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols
were dedicated adherents of the “Patriot” movement and their 1995 attack on the
Murrah Federal Building gave notice that anti-government extremists now posed a
major threat.
It is common for the media and others to assume that anti-government extremists
are also mostly white supremacists, but this is not the case. Though there is some
overlap between the two spheres, the main anti-government extremist movements
direct their anger at the government and there have always been people of color in
these movements.
Indeed, the sovereign citizen movement in particular has unfortunately seen
particularly strong growth within the African-American community in recent years.
Two of the sovereign-citizen related incidents on this list, the LaPlace, Louisiana,
shootings in 2012 and the Columbus, Ohio, bomb-making attempt in 2016, involved
African-Americans. Two incidents not included on this list involved extremists who
were primarily black nationalists but who had secondary sovereign citizen
affiliations: the 2014 plot by two men to blow up the Gateway Arch and kill law
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
enforcement officials in St. Louis, Missouri, and the 2016 deadly ambush killings of
three police officers in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
The militia movement has spent much of its history trying to distance itself from
accusations of racism or white supremacy but in recent years much of the
movement has willingly embraced a particular type of bigotry: anti-Muslim hatred.
This Islamophobia has taken numerous forms, from armed protests in front of
mosques to a major terrorist plot in October 2016 in Garden City, Kansas, where
three militia members were arrested in connection with an alleged plot to blow up
an apartment complex that primarily housed Muslim Somali-American residents.
The militia movement could produce more such terror attempts aimed at Muslims
in the future.
Anti-abortion extremists are responsible for 11% of the terror incidents collected
here. Compared to the incidents connected to white supremacists or antigovernment extremists, the number of abortion related terror attacks and attempts
is low. However, given the small number of anti-abortion extremists relative to
adherents of the other, much larger movements, the consistent stream of terror
incidents that flow from this movement is worrisome.
Anti-abortion extremists are an example of what is called “single-issue extremism.”
Single-issue extremists are typically the extreme wing of a broader, more
mainstream movement dedicated to a single cause or issue. While most people in
those movements would not think of committing acts of violence, adherents of the
extreme wing of those movements are more likely to consider violent activity,
operating under a sense of extreme urgency and with a conviction that the ends
justify the means. A few other right-wing single issue extremists, such as antiMuslim extremists and anti-immigration extremists, have also committed violent
acts included among the 150 listed here.
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
All of the perpetrators and alleged perpetrators listed in this report have ties to
extremist ideologies, but not all of them actually have had connections to specific
extremist groups. Indeed, “terrorist groups” as such—i.e., groups that form and
exist largely for the purpose of committing terrorist acts—are rare in the United
States, where the rule of law is strong and such groups have great difficulties in
finding purchase. Even when extremists are connected to specific groups, they
rarely commit their actions at the direction of the group. Rather, extremist groups
in the United States tend to serve a purpose of radicalization more than anything
else, whether of their own members or, as in the case of Dylann Roof, of nonmembers who may be influenced by their propaganda.
The perpetrators of some of the incidents on this list were part of formal groups,
while others were essentially involved in “cells”—informal associations of
extremists banding together to commit an act. But just as common as these two
types were lone offenders—the “lone wolf” terrorists responsible for a large number
of America’s terror incidents. Indeed, approximately half of the 150 incidents listed
in this report involved lone wolf offenders. Today, thanks to the Internet, it is easier
than ever for someone to become steeped in extremist ideologies, even to the point
of being willing to commit acts of great violence, without ever being involved in an
organized extremist group.
The Incidents
The list in this report includes 150 incidents involving acts, attempted acts, and plots
of right-wing terrorism from 1993 through part of 2017. A few of these terror acts
are well-known, such as the bombings conducted by Timothy McVeigh and Eric
Rudolph, while many other incidents garnered little more than local media coverage
and are unknown to most Americans. Such lists always involve some value
judgments on the margins and there are some incidents on the list that some people
might think don’t belong on such a list, while there are items missing from the list
that some people might think should be included, such as the armed standoffs
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
involving members of the Bundy family and others in Nevada in 2014 and Oregon in
In many cases where a possible incident was not included, it was for one of several
reasons. First, for some reported incidents, an extremist connection has never been
satisfactorily established or has in fact been disproved. For example, in 2014 Dennis
Marx attempted to use firearms and explosives to attack an Atlanta courthouse;
some media outlets reported or speculated that Marx was a sovereign citizen.
However, no evidence confirming this ever emerged and the police eventually
acknowledged he had not been involved in the movement. Similarly, some media
speculated that Jared Lee Loughner, who shot Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords
and 18 others in a 2011 shooting spree in Arizona, was a sovereign citizen, but this
also turned out to be untrue.
An additional group of incidents did not make the list because, while an extremist
definitely committed an act of significant violence, the act was a spontaneous act of
violence without noticeable premeditation; such acts are usually not included here.
Finally, some incidents—usually discoveries of extremists with major illegal
arsenals of weapons and/or explosives—were not included because there was
insufficient evidence of any target or intent to use the weapons for an act of
terrorism. The incidents in these two categories are serious criminal violations but
not really incidents of terrorism.
Those omissions still leave 150 terror incidents from the last quarter-century. This
lengthy string of dangerous attacks and plots illustrates how deeply seated the
threat of right-wing terrorism is in the United States.
A look at these 150 incidents over time reveals that two specific surges of right-wing
terrorism have occurred over the past 25 years. The first was the surge of the mid-tolate 1990s, a result of a great increase in right-wing extremism as a result of a variety
of factors that include the election of Bill Clinton, the passage of NAFTA, the passage
of gun control measures such as the Brady Law and the Assault Weapons Ban, and
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
the deadly standoffs at Ruby Ridge, Idaho, in 1992 and Waco, Texas, in 1993, which
energized white supremacists and anti-government extremists, respectively.
The 1990s surge had died down by the turn of the century and right-wing terrorism
occurred less frequently in the early-to-mid 2000s. Events ranging from the nonevent of a Y2K-related disaster to the replacement of Bill Clinton with George W.
Bush to the 9/11 terror attacks all played a role in dampening right-wing furor.
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
Unfortunately, this state of affairs did not last. Near the end of Bush’s second term,
right-wing terror incidents began to increase again and this trend accelerated by
2009, thanks in part to the election of Barack Obama, whom both white
supremacists and anti-government extremists hated, and to the major economic
disasters of the Great Recession and the foreclosure crisis. The latter two in
particular allowed the sovereign citizen movement to greatly expand. The result
was a second surge of right-wing extremism, one that was accompanied by a surge
of right-wing terror incidents. This increased level of terror-related activity remains
high today, though whether or not it will sustain itself during a Trump
administration remains to be seen.
The worst right-wing terror attack, the Oklahoma City bombing, killed 168 people
and injured hundreds more. Thankfully, none of the other incidents achieved
anywhere near that level of lethality and destructiveness. In large part, this has
been due to effective law enforcement, at both the federal and state/local levels, who
have uncovered and prevented many attempts at terrorist acts. Indeed, only a
minority of the incidents recorded here—65 out of 150–could be considered
“successful” acts, by which is meant that the terrorist(s) succeeded in carrying out
part or all of their plan or were able to wreak some sort of damage (such as shooting
someone) while attempting to carry out their plan. This does not include bombs
that were successfully planted but which failed to go off.
Some of the attempted acts never had a good chance of success, while others could
easily have been deadly. Even though most terror incidents were not successes, the
minority that did succeed resulted in 255 deaths and approximately 603 people
injured (not all injury counts are consistent). Were it not for the efforts of law
enforcement to detect and prevent right-wing acts of terror, that deadly toll would
be far higher still.
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25 Years of Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
To accomplish their deadly aims, extremists used a variety of tools and tactics, but
overwhelmingly firearms and explosives were the most common weapons chosen.
Indeed, 55 of the 150 terror incidents involved use or planned use of firearms, while
another 55 involved explosives. Moreover, of the 17 incidents involving multiple
weapons types, firearms and explosives were by far the most common combination.
It is worth nothing that, although bombs were used or considered by extremists just
as often as firearms, their successful use rate was much lower. This is largely due to
the fact that explosives are far more difficult to obtain and to use in the United
States than are firearms, which are abundant, easy to use, and very deadly. There is
far better regulation of explosives than firearms in the United States.
In a minority of cases, right-wing extremists attempted arsons or incendiary devices
such as Molotov cocktails; abortion clinics were a frequent target of such violence.
And, from time to time, extremists would select more exotic means of murder, such
as using the deadly toxin ricin or poisoning a water supply or trying to build a
radiological weapon.
A Dark and Constant Rage: 25…
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