Arts in Hospitality Business Management











César Ritz Colleges


Bachelor of Arts in Hospitality Business Management


Human Resource Strength perceived by employees



Student’s Name

Luowenwen 743553

Wint war war phoo(Wayne) 739348

Jiayi Lyu(Grace) 742336







Instructors Name

Dr. Evelina Gillard



Course Name








Table of Contents Assessment 1 3 Article 1 3 Article 2 3 Article 3 4 Article 4 5 Article 5 6 Article 6 7 Summary of assessment 1 9 Assessment 2 10 Summary 17

Assessment 1

Article 1

Journal title: Individual perceptions of HR practices, HRM strength and appropriateness of care: A Meso, multilevel approach


Reference: Dello Russo, S., Mascia, D. and Morandi, F. (2016) “Individual perceptions of HR practices, HRM strength and appropriateness of care: A Meso, multilevel approach,” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(2), pp. 286–310. Available at:



This article aims to provide a multilevel analysis of the effects of individual employees’ perceptions of HR practices on the productivity of the work climate. Employee perception variability is also portrayed as the prerequisite for the excellence of an organization. The article elaborates that Human resource equips employees with skills and practical knowledge, which is imperative for gaining proactivity in their work. This article has also provided a piece of evidence that human resource management provides assurance of job security and diminishes the fear of facing the consequences of job loss. Conclusively, the objective of human resources, which is to promote the shared interest of the workers, is discussed in detail. This article is useful as it states that Human resource management imbibes a sense of responsibility and helps employees to fulfill organizational expectations. The article is scholarly and peer-reviewed, authored by and reviewed by field experts. It is also published in a credible international journal of human resource management. It is authentic and reliable research conducted in 44 departments of 27 different hospitals and includes 2821 participants. This work will reinforce the topic by proving its validity. It will help understand the processes of HR practices, their effectiveness, and important implications for HR managers regarding the involvement of people in HR tasks.


Article 2

Journal title: HRM system strength and HRM target achievement-toward a broader understanding of HRM processes


Reference: Hauff, S., Alewell, D. and Katrin Hansen, N. (2016) “HRM system strength and HRM target achievement-toward a broader understanding of HRM processes,” Human Resource Management, 56(5), pp. 715–729. Available at:



The author’s purpose is to analyze the HRM system strengths to bridge the gap for professional achievements and provide evidence regarding the need for Human Resource Management for success in businesses. The first target of the article was employee attitude, which is imperative for organizational development. The other target of this article was the effectiveness and availability of human resources. Moreover, three main components, including distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus, are categorized, which determine the HRM system’s strength. The HRM system’s strength can be measured through visibility, clarity, acceptance, consistency, effectiveness, and intensity. Conclusively, it is a successful attempt to highlight the HRM system strengths and its connection with HRM target achievements. This article is useful as it helps in understanding that the HRM system is necessary for the target achievement and the fulfillment of the employer’s demands. This research is credible as innumerable citations have been made and reliable researchers have taken part in the research. The authors have collected almost 1000 German findings and concluded that the success of HRM targets depends on the HRM system’s strength. It provides newer insights on the topic, which is beneficial to the research.


Article 3

Journal title: Collectivism-oriented human resource management on team creativity: effects of interpersonal harmony and human resource management strength


Reference: Youqing Fan, Guanglei Zhang & Yu Zhang (2021) Collectivismoriented human resource management on team creativity: effects of interpersonal harmony and human resource management strength, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32:18, 3805-3832, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2019.1640765



This essay investigates how strong human resource management and positive interpersonal dynamics affect collective innovation in the workplace. Strong human resource management and interpersonal harmony mediate the positive influence of collectivism-oriented HRM on team creativity. Organizations should prioritize human resource policies that encourage group thinking and innovation. To be more precise, the authors advocate for human resource management with a collectivist focus. I think this is a wise suggestion that could spark more innovative thinking inside the group. So I think the article fits the topic “Human Resource Strength perceived by employees” since it addresses the impact that collectivism-oriented HRM has on the innovative capacity of teams. This article was created by researching 177 research teams in China, so the article is professional and credible. The age of the article’s publication makes the information in this article all converge to recent developments. And both the writing and the results of the study are really impressive. The article’s evidence that HRM with a collectivist focus can boost team creativity makes it appropriate for discussion of the topic at hand.


Article 4

Journal title: The strength of human resource practices and transformational leadership: impact on organizational performance


Reference: Pereira, C. M., & Gomes, J. F. (2012). The strength of human resource practices and transformational leadership: impact on organisational performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(20), 4301-4318.



This study aims to explore the relationships between excellent HR, strong leadership, a supportive workplace culture, and great performance. Surveys were utilized to gather data from a company that operates in the industrial sector. An HRM system’s “Strength” refers to its capacity to transmit signals with a high level of uniqueness, homogeneity, and agreement. Therefore, HR systems affect how employees perceive and respond to elements of their workplaces. Additionally, research demonstrates that the relationship between HR competence and productivity is modulated by the organizational climate. The author presents a very compelling argument that leadership and HR authorities are two elements of the workplace environment that influence and mold employees’ attitudes. The paper uses a questionnaire survey methodology and gathers 323 questionnaires, making it thorough and professional. The essay is diversified in that it looks at how culture, environment, and other elements are impacted by human resources. Therefore, this article fits the theme of “Employee-Perceived Human Resource Strength”.


Article 5

Journal title: Mind the intended-implemented gap: Understanding employees’ perceptions of HRM


Reference: Piening, E.P., Baluch, A.M. and Ridder, H.-G. (2014) “Mind the intended-implemented gap: Understanding employees’ perceptions of HRM,” Human Resource Management, 53(4), pp. 545–567.Available at:



There are a number of reasons why I think these changes would increase the degree to which HRM is as it was intended to be, actually is, and is seen by those involved. To begin, businesses may guarantee that HR policies and procedures are in line with their aims by ensuring that all decision-makers share the same understanding of the outcomes they expect from HR policies and procedures. Additionally, businesses can guarantee efficient HR practice implementation by investing in training for managers. Third, firms can boost employee engagement with HR practices by cultivating an environment that welcomes and rewards employee participation in HR activities. Finally, firms can lessen the likelihood that workers would view HR procedures as unfair or unproductive by ensuring that workers have realistic expectations of HRM. Understanding the HRM-performance connection requires an appreciation of how employees feel about HRM, which is something the paper addresses. The article claims that the gap between what an organization plans to do and what it really does in terms of human resources is crucial to comprehending how its employees feel about human resource management. The content in this academic study is current and comes from reputable sources ,I personally believe this paper to be relevant because it contains current information from dependable sources and concepts, as well as clear data that serves as evidence.



Article 6

Journal title: HR–line‐connecting HRM system


Reference: Kim, S., Su, Z. X., & Wright, P. M. (2018). The “HR–line‐connecting HRM system” and its effects on employee turnover. Human Resource Management, 57(5), 1219-1231.



This article takes a comprehensive look at the interaction that Human Resource experts have with line supervisors and how that relationship influences the regulations that pertain to Human Resource Management. The research that was done on the topic and published in the relevant literature highlights how a healthy interaction between the two groups can foster a favorable climate in the business and assist employee productivity. This research serves to support another perspective of the primary roles that each group plays in relation to the other, as well as the impacts on staffing and staff retention metrics. The research also presents a Human Resources management system with the purpose of assisting a firm in achieving its expansion objectives and enhancing its internal staffing practices. The article makes extensive use of visual aids in order to adequately evaluate the Human Resources system that is presented as a novel approach that an organization may think about pursuing in order to promote a happy and thriving workplace. This article would be relevant to the topic “Human Resource Strength perceived by employee” with the support of the turnover data associated with the HRM.

Summary of assessment 1

Article No. Source Useful Not useful
1 Individual perceptions of HR practices, HRM strength and appropriateness of care: A Meso, multilevel approach    
2 HRM system strength and HRM target achievement-toward a broader understanding of HRM processes    
3 Collectivism-oriented human resource management on team creativity: effects of interpersonal harmony and human resource management strength    
4 The strength of human resource practices and transformational leadership: impact on organizational performance    
5 Mind the intended-implemented gap: Understanding employees’ perceptions of HRM    
6 HR–line‐connecting HRM system    


 Assessment 2





The purpose of HRM procedures is to manage the workforce so that the organization may accomplish its goals and uphold its culture. A firm will only be as good as its workforce, hence HRM is essential to preserving or enhancing the viability of the organization. HR directors can also keep an eye on the labor market to keep their company competitive. This might entail ensuring equal pay and benefits, hosting events to avoid employee dissatisfaction, and altering job positions to suit the market.

HRM is important for workplaces for several reasons. First, Strategic Planning. With its understanding of the relationship between human capital and organizational performance, HR helps the business’s bottom line. Examining Advantages. Benefits experts can help businesses cut down on the expenses of firing, replacing, and terminating employees. They are also aware of the advantages offered to workers that are most likely to keep them. Reducing liability concerns. Management of human resources reduces a company’s exposure to risk and responsibility from claims of discriminatory hiring practices. They recognize, look into, and fix problems at work. Educating and Developing. Human resources training and development specialists coordinate new employee orientation, an important step in building a strong employer-employee relationship. Last, Employee Contentment. HRM helps organizations achieve high performance, morale, and satisfaction across the workforce by creating ways to strengthen the employer-employee relationship.


Building synergy between organizational units is another key goal of human resources management, which is why it is crucial for a business. Strong HRM could benefit firms in a number of ways, as this division deals with internal conflicts directly this is the department that acts as a lubricant for the departments. The standards upheld by this department are crucial for conflict management.



HRM strength has a significant impact on employee productivity. One of these impacts is that it gives more stability to the employees. Distinctiveness, consensus, and consensus are the marks of HRM strength. These attributes give employees a sense of stability, which validates their sense of job security. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, security is very important for employees. This creates job satisfaction, which improves employee productivity.

Second, HRM strength impacts employee productivity by promoting good working conditions. HRM ensures consensus, which means that all employees, regardless of work level, are on the same page. This consensus leads to agreement on contentious issues such as pay and working hours, which helps to boost employee morale. This increases employee productivity.

And also HRM strength impacts employee productivity by promoting innovation in the organization. HRM strength seeks to be distinctive, pushing the organization to seek newer and more innovative ways to work. With the implementation of newer technology, employees are more productive as they can do more with less work. For example, the introduction of stronger computing technology can improve employee productivity.

The last point is HRM strength can improve employee productivity by providing career development and skill improvement opportunities. HRM strength advocates for the continual growth of human resources, which involves the provision of opportunities for growth. This helps to improve employee productivity as employees’ need for growth is addressed while the organization benefits from better quality results.


Employees have varying perspectives about HRM strengths. The views impact the employee’s behaviors, attitudes, capabilities, and motivations, impacting organizational performance. So first the ability of the HRM to handle different experiences and situations effectively determines its strengths. Employees believe that a strong and effective HRM should effectively address all critical situations and events satisfactorily. HRM strength is seen as the decider of the outcome by the employees, especially in situations where the employee’s conduct does not befit the organization. HRM strength is seen as the judge and decides the outcome in this situation.

Simultaneously, employees perceive HRM strength as the company’s strength. The HRM department holds a lot of power in an organization. They represent the organization’s ideals and priorities to the employee. This means that their actions are representative of the strength of the organization.

Lastly, employees perceive HRM strengths from a policy-making viewpoint. It touches on considerations about employees from central bodies and decision-makers. Strong HRM practices endorse and diffuse the part of HRM structures in the organization through its employees. The various HRM strengths signal employees what they are expected to do, get rewarded, or support.



This research focuses on how employees perceive the benefits of HRM. The management of internal workplace departments is called Human Resource Management (HRM). This unit is related to the company’s operational safety, reducing risks and unnecessary worries, and HR greatly contributes to improving employee satisfaction with the company. HR can establish company values ​​for employees and allow employees to work with conviction. Also, build a culture at work and give instructions to empower people. To ensure effective internal unit coordination, the Human Resources department plays a key role. Prevent potential confrontation and handle it skillfully. A productive HR department will increase a business’s talent retention rate and reduce employee turnover.


As leaders fail to deal with employee conflict, this can lead to employee dissatisfaction, which can have an impact on company success and employee engagement. When employees no longer feel supported or given the opportunity to work hard, their performance motivation is hindered. This is where HR plays an important role. The human resources department is seen as a key component of the business. The level of productivity will be closely related to how motivated employees are in the HR department. HR needs to regularly solicit the opinions of employees and respect the ideas of employees. HR is always concerned about the psychological changes of employees, and they help the chaos by resolving conflicts and soothing the mentality of employees. As employee satisfaction increases, so does employee productivity, and employees will be more eager to contribute to the business. Human Resources is fully aware of the guidelines that apply to companies that employ employees. This vast area cannot be ignored. This expertise can reduce the opportunity cost associated with hiring and firing people. In conclusion, coordinating employee performance through HR will bring more advantages to the company and achieve long-term goals, and the company will also benefit from it.


Dello Russo, S., Mascia, D. and Morandi, F., 2018. Individual perceptions of HR practices, HRM strength and appropriateness of care: a meso, multilevel approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(2), pp.286-310.

Hauff, S., Alewell, D. and Katrin Hansen, N., 2017. HRM system strength and HRM target achievement—toward a broader understanding of HRM processes. Human Resource Management, 56(5), pp.715-729.

Van Beurden, J., Van De Voorde, K., & Van Veldhoven, M. (2020). The employee perspective on HR practices: A systematic literature review, integration and outlook. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(2), 359–393.






















The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Method: PSY 535

Instructor Andrea Goldstein

November 12, 2022


The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health


Social media has become a major part of people’s lives in the modern world. Since its existence, it has been used for various purposes in everyday life. The initial purpose of social media was for easier and faster personal communication. However, it has gradually been incorporated into different fields, such as the business world, schools, and hospitals, as a communication and marketing tool, making it easier to reach more customers and potential clients within a short time. Nevertheless, social media has also had its downside, which can also be detrimental to the health and well-being of its users. Studies conducted recently have identified the development of mental health issues as one of the negative effects of social media. Increased use of social media has been shown to cause various mental health disorders such as stress and anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder. This proposal will analyze an experimental study to identify the influence of social media on mental health. It will study selected participants, measures to address the variables of interest, and the data collection procedure (Bashir & Bhat, 2017).


Social media can affect any of its users. Therefore, there is no particular population that is only affected by the overuse of social media. However, various studies have shown that teenagers and young adults aged 12- 30 are more prone to developing mental health issues than older adults (Berryman, Ferguson & Negy, 2018). This can be attributed to the more screen time consumed by this set of individuals compared to people above this age bracket. Therefore, the participants in this experiment will include high school and college students since they face higher risks of developing mental health disorders.

According to different research studies and analyses, students who spend much time on social media are more likely to develop sleeping disorders, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem due to peer pressure on social platforms. This experiment will study different variables and factors that influence students’ use of social media and how it leads to the development of mental health issues.


This experiment will study different variables and factors that lead to the development of mental health issues from too much use of social media by high school and college students. One of the most important factors to consider in the experiment will be the daily amount of time spent on social media by the average number of students. This will help to distinguish between the average time that can be deemed healthy and detrimental to a student’s mental health.

The experiment will also measure the commonly used social media platforms and their effect on students’ mental health. Various social platforms have been proven to have chances of accelerating mental discomfort, such as low self-esteem, which is one of the initial stages of developing mental health disorders. Platforms such as YouTube, Instagram, and Snapchat are some of the most used apps by students in that age bracket.

Data Collection Procedure

In this experiment, data and information will be collected efficiently to ensure the effectiveness of this experiment. Selected students will fill out questionnaires concerning their social media use, such as their feelings and attitudes before, during, and after using the social platforms. Answers collected from the questionnaires will be analyzed to identify the various triggers and underlying factors that make the students develop negative emotions, ultimately leading to mental issues. This will be the most crucial stage since it will discuss the effect of factors such as average time spent on social media, content consumed, and interactions they may face on social platforms.



Bashir, H., & Bhat, S. A. (2017). Effects of social media on mental health: A review.  International Journal of Indian Psychology,  4(3), 125–131.

Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2018). Social media use and mental health among young adults.  Psychiatric quarterly,  89(2), 307–314.

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