CSU Operational and Tactical Uses of Technology 5 new pages total  Key Assignment: Part 1  Taking all of your findings into consideration, including peer a

CSU Operational and Tactical Uses of Technology 5 new pages total 
Key Assignment: Part 1 
Taking all of your findings into consideration, including peer and instructor feedback, as well as your work in Week 4, submit the final draft of your Key Assignment. For the assignment, you will be drafting a report summarizing the role of technology in society and assessing the efforts of the United States to harness it to reduce the threat of terrorism. ( feed from professor was outstand no corrections needed)
The paper will focus on the following: 

Consideration of strategic, operational, and tactical uses of technology  
Identification and assessment of alternative polices to address a homeland security (HLS) technology challenge  
Respective roles of the public and private sectors in developing, employing, and funding HLS technologies  
Consideration of ethics and privacy in the employment of technology 

Your paper will conclude with a policy proposal that includes recommendations to the President of the United States on the following: 

Should the United States stay on the current course of technological investment?  
Should the United States increase technological investment (and if so, how), or abandon current development in favor of an alternative strategy (and if so, what)? 

Key Assignment: Part 2 
Create a user guide of terrorist threats, U.S. counterterrorism (CT) strategy and documents, and the technological solutions in this strategy. Provide an executive summary that explains the following:

What is the U.S. CT strategy?  
What role does technology play in this strategy? https://www.studypool.com/uploads/questions/354698/20190201141056hls_impediments_to_progress_key.docx 
Do you think the U.S. can eventually eliminate terrorism? Why or why not? Running Head: HLS TECHNOLOGY
Theodore Proia
HLS Technology
Theodore Proia
Colorado Technical University
January 29, 2019
Theodore Proia
Homeland security is a top priority for the United States government. This is because,
like many other governments, they are mandated to protect their citizens and their property.
Technology, on the other hand, has been used to effectively make human lives easier and this has
greatly been witnessed in production, transport, and other sectors. The American government,
however, utilizes technology to help maintain technology which is necessitated by the shift in
crime and terror characteristics; with terrorists and criminals using technology to plan, survey,
recruit and execute their attacks in any part of the world. On the other hand, technology offers
swift mechanisms of identifying, alerting and arresting criminals and suspect right before or after
they have carried out their heinous crimes. This last section, therefore, summarizes the role of
technology in society and assesses the efforts of the United States to harness it and reduce the
threat of terrorism.
Strategic uses of Technology in averting threats
The United States strategically utilizes several technologies to stay ahead of terrorists and
other classes of wrongdoers. This includes having the technology to effectively detect
beforehand the intentions of a suspect or suspected group beforehand and stop them on their
tracks. For instance, an agency like the FBI and CIA has a database of suspected individuals,
where they legally use technology to track their movements and listen in on their phone
conversations as well as social media activity which can help show their intentions while at the
same time pinpoint their locations and expose their cells and ringleaders (Bonvillian & Sharp,
2019; Byrne & Marx, 2014; Fatih & Bekir, 2015). As such, while a terrorist organization plans
its course of action, the agencies in charge prepares a preemptive counteraction safeguarding
homeland security. Tools such as the Geographic Information Systems show a geospatial
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scattering of suspected terrorist and criminal activity which helps the government to deploy
specific amounts of resources based on the size of the threat (Caudle, 2012).
Operational Uses of Technology
Operational uses of technology in averting threats involves identifying, monitoring and
foiling terror plans or attacks. For instance, with the use of CCTV cameras, law enforcement can
obtain live feeds from a suspected terrorist which help in the formulation of arrest plans to keep
all individuals involved in the process, as well as available civilians safe. On the other hand
biometric kits, which work through DNA identification as well as fingerprinting suspects, help
confirm the true identity of an individual which eliminates the possibility of wrong arrests or
marking of individuals as a suspect. This saves time and increases efficiency in the process.
Using geo-locators, it is possible to identify an individual’s actual location and pick them up
without disturbing the entire neighborhood or alerting the culprits of their impending arrest. In
essence, the operational uses of technology work hand in hand with technology by making the
whole process effective and efficient while minimizing disturbances and casualties in the process
(Caplan, Kennedy, Barnum, & Piza, 2017; Caudle, 2012).
Tactical Uses of Technology
Tactical uses of technology to avert threats involve meticulous planning of operations to
arrest or foil terror suspects and terror threats respectively with the greatest precision and
efficiency. As already stated, monitoring technology helps to understand patterns in movements
and communication which allow counterterrorism units and agencies to plan their raids in a way
that helps arrest or disrupt the terrorists’ plans. Additionally, it is easy to understand when
civilians will be minimal to avoid carrying out such raids when there is a great possibility of
injuring the same civilians such raids intend to protect. Additionally, technology can help
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simulate raids through three dimension graphics which affect the ease at which security forces
subdue their targets while at the same time minimizing injuries or even death on their side, given
that such terrorists and criminal gangs are often readily armed to combat any intrusion into their
hideouts as they attempt to flee (Caplan, Kennedy, Barnum, & Piza, 2017; Byrne & Marx, 2014).
Ethical and Privacy issues in the employment of technology to combat crimes
At any given time, there is always an innocent civilian on the CIA’s or FBI’s watchlist.
These individuals, just like others in the list are often monitored to help see if any of their days to
day activities relates to terror or crime which might jeopardize homeland security. To employ
monitoring capabilities, phone calls are tapped, CCTV cameras planted in an individual’s home,
vehicle movements monitored as wells social media action which includes assessing suspect’s
friends’ lists and scrutinizing social media posts among other actions. These strategy has often
seen homeland security agencies such as the FBI as well as those that focus on securing the
nation from external threats such as the CIA come under intense accusations and pressure from
human rights lobby groups over the ethical nature of their actions. Partly, it is because this action
exposes an individual’s private life to the world, mostly without their consent (Fatih & Bekir,
On the other hand, the Supreme Court fails to expound on the privacy rights issue
explicitly; additionally, several courts have held that proven suspect or ex-convict’s rights are
second to the safety of the public hence suspects will always be monitored, against their own
will. However, these agencies are guided by policies and legal frameworks that influence how
they handle the information they obtain from the secret monitoring activities. Additionally, they
must always obtain warrants and orders to partake in such action, without which they would be
breaching the same laws they seek to enforce. However, while some individuals are wrongly
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suspected and monitored the FBI to be specific, has been on several occasions accused of
unethical practices where they were involved in obtaining information without following the
right channels or protocols.
Alternative Policies to Address HLS Technology Challenges
Homeland Security faces challenges from several frontiers. This include; legal challenges
which sees much of their functionality capped as they focus to follow all legal requirements
before utilizing technology and financial challenges which ensures that their expansion to
embrace modern and emerging technologies is capped. Additionally, newer forms of threats such
as chemical and biological weapons are hard to identify while using the traditional technologies
which demands an increase in their capabilities to encompass these forms of threats (Bonvillian
& Sharp, 2019). Additionally, while attention is greatly paid to weapons of mass destruction
such as nuclear weapons terrorist continuously show their intentions by wreaking havoc while
utilizing improvised explosive devices that in several cases can be detected by presents
technology, given their crude making processes and techniques. This challenges, not only pose a
challenge to homeland security but is also a challenge to policymakers who are mandated by law
to come up with effective policies to protect the interests of the civilian of whom they serve
(Caplan, Kennedy, Barnum, & Piza, 2017).
To address the above-mentioned challenges, new technologies to enhance detection of
other types of weapons should be encouraged. This weapon should have the capabilities to
mimic signatures emitted by biological and chemical weapons. On the other hand legal
frameworks need to be adjusted to help institute policies that allow for the fast and efficient
action of monitoring and making arrests to help remove threats from society. For instance,
whereas a relaxation of monitoring policies would seem like a breach of the common citizen’s
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privacy rights, a few more policies could be implemented to help determine and justify the
monitoring or preemptive action on an individual’s premises.
Roles of the Public and Private sectors
The public and private sectors have to some level, distinct roles towards the development,
employing, and funding of HLS technologies. However, it is equally imperative to note that
these roles are quite intertwined with one sector assisting the other to help the HLS achieve its
objectives through technology (Busch & Givens, 2018).
The Private Sector
The private sector is quite established in the United States. This is regarding
technological infrastructure the resources to advance the same through research. As such the
private sector is tasked with the development of technology and IT through coordinated efforts
between the private sector and the government. This involves planning, designing, creating and
testing the functionality of technological equipment’s, hardware and software in the case of IT.
For instance, the Google/Government Artificial intelligence program that was intended to
increase the nations AI military capabilities was an instance of a government-private sector
partnership before Google pulled out citing ethical issues. The private sector also provides a
large number of experts to the government who are either employed as analysis and system
developers among others. This is quite beneficial given that the public sector, which falls under
the government is financially constrained to continuously offer individuals with training on IT
and emerging technology for the use in homeland security. Finally, the private sector partners
with the public sector in the application of technologies utilized for the enhancement of
homeland security. For instance, some American ports that are involved in the supply chain of
products to and from the mainland have instituted security partnerships with the government
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which sees individuals screened to ascertain that they do not pose as a security threat as they
move into the harbor (Busch & Givens, 2018).
On the other hand, the public sector funds a large section of these technology programs
through taxation in a bid to help establish modern and up to date equipment. In the annual
government budget, the development of homeland security technology is funded through
allocation to the department. However, some projects are funded through public-private
partnerships to help lift the expenditure from the shoulders of the public. However, while the
public plays no role in the active development of these technological products, they are involved
in the oversight role of development and application. For instance, the public is tasked with the
duty of ensuring that the development process of these products as well as how they are
employed, falls within the requirements of the law and that the funding is utilized as originally
set out in the budget.
Why the U.S should stay on current Technological investment course
The United States spends heavily on security infrastructure every year. This implies that
the technological aspects of security are equally factored in and take a lot of expenditure. In
previous times questions have been raised as to whether these projects are really necessary given
the amount of funding the take from the government. In my view, I believe that these projects are
necessary and would recommend the government to stay on its course with its current
technological plans. This is based on the fact that terrorists and criminal gangs are equally
advancing, and finding dubious means that effectively beat the present technologies. To stay
ahead of these divergent the government must invest in research and development of up to date
technologies which eliminate loopholes in the process. On the other hand, foreign nations like
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China have heavily invested in technological infrastructure for security purposes. However,
while this is not a competition of sorts on which nation has the latest technological gadget,
staying up to date protects the homeland against advanced foreign threats, and this technology
may be utilized for counterintelligence in the process.
Why the United States Should Increase its technological Investment
Despite the expensive nature of research and development in the area of technological
security infrastructure, the United States government should increase its expenditure on these
projects. As previously stated there is a worldwide rush for Artificial Intelligence which is the
next frontier in technology. The government must, therefore, stay in the loop and control this
form of technology before terrorists, and other dangerous elements succeed. However, these
projects are quite expensive where which implies that a sudden increase in expenditure on these
investments will negatively affect other areas. As such, while the government should increase its
expenditure on technological investment, they should do so gradually increasing its funding
annually or biannually while at the same time setting smaller milestones that can be achieved by
smaller increments. On the other hand, they could strengthen public-private sector partnerships
which would help them obtain other sources of funding for security technological development.
Why the United States should not abandon Current Strategy
The current strategy involves assessing and harnessing the capabilities of emerging
technologies. Instead of attempting to obtain technology for the sake of securing technology, the
U.S development strategy focusing on researching how such technologies can be employed by
the security agencies, both in the private and public sectors for homeland security as well as
military and intelligence. As such I believe that this strategy should not be switched for an
alternative strategy. Finally, it would be expensive to push for a more aggressive approach with
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the various government departments that require more and immediate funding. The current
strategy, achievable in smaller milestones is both economical and practical.
Bonvillian, W. B., & Sharp, K. (2019). Homeland Security Technology. Retrieved from Issues in
Science and Technology: https://issues.org/bonvillian/
Busch, N., & Givens, A. (2018). Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security:
Opportunities and Challenges. The Journal of the NPS Center for Homeland Defense and
Security, 1(1), 1-15.
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2014). Technological Innovations in Crime Prevention and Policing. A
Review of the Research on Implementation and Impact. CPS, 3(20), 17- 40.
Caplan, J., Kennedy, L., Barnum, J., & Piza, E. (2017). Crime in Context: Utilizing Risk Terrain
Modeling. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 33(2), 133-151.
Caudle, S. (2012). Homeland Security: Advancing the National Strategic Position. The Journal
of the NPS Center for Homeland Defense and Security, 1(1), 33-41.
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Fatih, T., & Bekir, C. (2015). Police Use Of Technology To Fight Crime. European Scientific
Journal, 11(10), 286-296.

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