Literature review of testable hypothesis

The proposal: Aggression in Children

1. Abstract


2. Introduction



3. Literature review with a testable hypothesis (The hypothesis should

flow from the literature review and add to the current research on the chosen topic.)

Hypothesis: Boys are considered to be more physically aggressive than girls.


4. Method section (participants, materials, and procedure) 50 children from 5 different local elementary school. Parent and caregivers will assist


Note : “Research Methodology” should be divvied up amongst those three subsections.

· Within your Participants section should go the details about who you’ll study and how you’ll recruit them. If you’re recruiting families, indicate what their inclusion and exclusion criteria might be. If you’re recruiting from schools, indicate how you’d be doing so. Also include an estimate of how many participants you hope to recruit, and any demographic variables you’d plan to record.


· Under the Measures section you should include the details of the materials you need to measure your variables. You mentioned a Behavior Frequency Scale – is that a published instrument? If so, make sure to cite it and clearly identify the ways it will measure your variable of interest (and remember, violence is just one kind of aggression). If it’s an original scale, keep in mind that you’d need to spell it out in it’s entirety as an appendix.


· How will the scale be administered? Is this all done online? Face-to-face? You also mention an interview – is that how you’d gather data? Be specific here, and include it in your Procedure section.





5. Projected results

· Note With regard to your results, try to connect the specific proposed analyses with the hypotheses you’re testing. And if you’re doing a gender comparison, a Pearson’s r will not be what you want. Any straight group comparison will require either a t-test (two groups, one DV) or an ANOVA (2 or more groups, one or more DVs).


· Also make sure to discuss some other anticipatable limitations to this kind of study – for example, the preconceptions the raters might have about boys’ and girls’ behavior. And what else might be helpful to measure here? Any confounds that you haven’t considered?


6. Discussion of what these results mean


Note – The final literature review should include a thorough review of 8-10 articles related to the chosen topic. Please use the below articles:


Luo, M., Pappa, I., Cecil, C. A. M., Jansen, P., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Kok, R. (2022). Maternal psychological problems during pregnancy and child externalizing problems: Moderated mediation model with child self-regulated compliance and polygenic risk scores for aggression. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 53(4), 654–666.


McRae, E. M., Stoppelbein, L., O’Kelley, S. E., Fite, P. K., & Smith, S. B. (2022). Pathways from child maltreatment to proactive and reactive aggression: The role of posttraumatic stress symptom clusters. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 14(3), 357–366.




Brandes, C. M., Reardon, K. W., Shields, A. N., & Tackett, J. L. (2021). Towards construct validity of relational aggression: An examination of the Children’s Social Behavior Scale. Psychological Assessment, 33(9), 855–870. (Supplemental)


McRae, E. M., Stoppelbein, L., O’Kelley, S. E., Fite, P., & Smith, S. B. (2021). An examination of post-traumatic stress symptoms and aggression among children with a history of adverse childhood experiences. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 43(3), 657–670.


Meter, D. J., Ehrenreich, S. E., Beron, K., & Underwood, M. K. (2021). Listening in: How parent-child communication relates to social and physical aggression. Journal of Child and Family Studies.


Pascual, S. E., Azurmendi, A., Braza, F., Vergara, A. I., Cardas, J., & Sánchez, M. J. R. (2014). Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls. Aggressive Behavior, 40(5), 465–473.


Platje, E., Popma, A., Vermeiren, R. R. J. M., Doreleijers, T. A. H., Meeus, W. H. J., van Lier, P. A. C., Koot, H. M., Branje, S. J. T., & Jansen, L. M. C. (2015). Testosterone and cortisol in relation to aggression in a non‐clinical sample of boys and girls. Aggressive Behavior, 41(5), 478–487.




Thornton, L. C., Frick, P. J., Crapanzano, A. M., & Terranova, A. M. (2013). The incremental utility of callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in predicting aggression and bullying in a community sample of boys and girls. Psychological Assessment, 25(2), 366–378.


Azam, S., & Aftab, R. (2012). Social problem solving styles, acting-out tendencies, and aggression in boys and girls. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 27(1), 121–134.

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